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лекции Kazakhstan and the WTO

лекции Kazakhstan and the WTO

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Kazakhstan and the WTO How it all began After the WWII the values were reviewed. Many changes happened in international politics. It was recognized that only a joint trade foundation will guarantee international peace and security. July 1944. Creation of: World Bank, and International Monetary Fund (IMF) to regulate international economy. The perspective: foundation of the International Trade Organization (ITO). GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade was adopted in 1947 as provisional agreement before the ITO Charter would enter into force. 8 rounds of negotiations within GATT 1947 Tariffs 1949 Tariffs 1951 Tariffs 1956 Tariffs 1960 – 1961 Tariffs 1964 – 1967 Tariffs and anti-dumping measures 1973 – 1979 Tariffs, non-tariff measures, “framework” agreements. 1986 – 1994 Tariffs, non- tariff measures, rules, services, intellectual property, dispute settlement, textiles, agriculture, creation of WTO , etc. WTO Jan 95 Geneva: WTO is created, agreements take effect WTO is an “umbrella” agreement: it hosts under not only GATT, but also other agreements: GATS, TRIM and TRIPS GATT – General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GATS – General Agreement on Trade in Services TRIMs – Trade-Related Investment Measures TRIPS – Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights How to enter the WTO? Four steps: First, “tell us about yourself”. The request for accession (application). Memorandum: description of all aspects of county’s trade and economic policies. Memorandum is examined by the working party dealing with the country application. Second, “Work out with us individually what you have to offer” Bilateral negotiations. Third, “Let’s draft membership terms”
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Report A draft membership treaty (“protocol of accession”) Lists (“schedules”) of the member-to-be’s commitments. Finally, “the decision” The final package (report+protocol+list of commitments) is presented to the WTO General Council or the Ministerial Conference. Voting. Signature and ratification by the applicant state. Becoming a full member. Problems of the Accession Reform of Legislation; Elimination of Subsidies; High Energy Consumption of KZ’s Industry; Participation of KZ in Regional Integration Agreements (esp. close relations with Russia). Possible disadvantages of the Accession Accession may destroy jobs especially in processing industries; Accession will increase the development lag among KZ’ regions; The Government will lose the possibility to support the domestic producers; Danger of Recession due to the flow of goods and not of investment (Example, KY’s FDI dropped from $96 Mio. in 1997 to $36 Mio. in 1999).
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