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Unformatted text preview: Kazakhstan and the WTO How it all began • After the WWII the values were reviewed. Many changes happened in international politics. It was recognized that only a joint trade foundation will guarantee international peace and security. • July 1944. Creation of: – World Bank, and – International Monetary Fund (IMF) to regulate international economy. • The perspective: foundation of the International Trade Organization (ITO). GATT • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade was adopted in 1947 as provisional agreement before the ITO Charter would enter into force. 8 rounds of negotiations within GATT • 1947 Tariffs • 1949 Tariffs • 1951 Tariffs • 1956 Tariffs • 1960 – 1961 Tariffs • 1964 – 1967 Tariffs and anti-dumping measures • 1973 – 1979 Tariffs, non-tariff measures, “framework” agreements. • 1986 – 1994 Tariffs, non- tariff measures, rules, services, intellectual property, dispute settlement, textiles, agriculture, creation of WTO , etc. WTO • Jan 95 Geneva: WTO is created, agreements take effect • WTO is an “umbrella” agreement: it hosts under not only GATT, but also other agreements: GATS, TRIM and TRIPS • GATT – General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade • GATS – General Agreement on Trade in Services • TRIMs – Trade-Related Investment Measures • TRIPS – Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights How to enter the WTO? Four steps: • First, “tell us about yourself”. – The request for accession (application). – Memorandum: description of all aspects of county’s trade and economic policies. – Memorandum is examined by the working party dealing with the country application. • Second, “Work out with us individually what you have to offer” – Bilateral negotiations. • Third, “Let’s draft membership terms” – Report – A draft membership treaty (“protocol of accession”) – Lists (“schedules”) of the member-to-be’s commitments. • Finally, “the decision” – The final package (report+protocol+list of commitments) is presented to the WTO General Council or the Ministerial Conference. – Voting. – Signature and ratification by the applicant state. – Becoming a full member. Problems of the Accession • Reform of Legislation; • Elimination of Subsidies; • High Energy Consumption of KZ’s Industry; • Participation of KZ in Regional Integration Agreements (esp. close relations with Russia). Possible disadvantages of the Accession • Accession may destroy jobs especially in processing industries; • Accession will increase the development lag among KZ’ regions; • The Government will lose the possibility to support the domestic producers; • Danger of Recession due to the flow of goods and not of investment (Example, KY’s FDI dropped from $96 Mio. in 1997 to $36 Mio. in 1999)....
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This note was uploaded on 11/21/2011 for the course ECONOMICS 1087 taught by Professor Fkhhbi during the Spring '11 term at Aarhus Universitet.
- Spring '11