Off-Road Chapter 10

Off-Road Chapter 10 - Chapter 10 Electrical and Electronic...

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1 Chapter 10 Electrical and Electronic Systems Goering, Off-road Vehicle Engineering Principles, 2003 Introduction Electrical and electronic systems have evolved over the years to become an essential element of modern off-road vehicles The earliest successful agricultural tractors, like the Froelich, used a battery and electric ignition system to start the engine. A modern off-road vehicle typically incorporates an electrical system having its own power generation, storage, and distribution. Vehicle controls and diagnostics may have dozens of electronic computer-based controllers integrated into its systems. Electrical Systems Functions generally provided by the electrical system of a conventional off-road vehicle: ± Engine starting ± Ignition (spark-ignition engine) ± Lighting (work and safety) ± Sensing, display, and control ± Ventilation ± Accessory may include windscreen wiping, entertainment systems, radio, etc
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2 Electrical Systems con’t The charging system (power generation) is composed of an alternator and voltage regulator Power storage system is typically a 12 V dc battery The distribution system is composed of both the current distribution network and the current return loop Overload protection commonly includes a fuse panel with a common conductor to the battery and individual fuses on each conductor to the loads Electrical Systems con’t The typical loads are engine starting, ignition, lighting, sensing devices, ventilation, entertainment systems, etc The power control element might be an electronic control unit (ECU), which is an embedded computer-based controller. These devices might serve to regulate current to set the position of a solenoid controlled valve. Components of an electrical system Goering, Of -road Vehicle Engineering Principles, 2003
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3 Batteries 12 or 24 V dc batteries are the primary electrical energy storage elements in off-road vehicles During each start-up to shut-down operating cycle of the vehicle, the battery undergoes a discharge and a re-charge cycle The battery supplies large starting currents to the electrical engine starting motor. Batteries con’t During vehicle operation, the on-board alternator provides current to recharge the battery, so the battery will be sufficiently re-charged to allow restarting During vehicle operation, alternator generated current not required for vehicle electrical loads recharge the battery Batteries con’t Battery characteristics are critical in determining the capacity necessary for a particular vehicle. This figure depicts a cell in a lead-acid battery. This is the primary battery used in off-highway vehicles. Goering, Of -road Vehicle Engineering Principles, 2003
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4 Batteries con’t During discharge, current flow is due to the chemical reactions that occur in the battery. A single cell in the battery develops a potential difference of slightly more than 2 V at full charge. At the positive plate, lead peroxide (PbO
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Off-Road Chapter 10 - Chapter 10 Electrical and Electronic...

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