ANAT 1502 Embryology Notes Chapters 1-9

ANAT 1502 Embryology Notes Chapters 1-9 - CHAPTER 1: INTRO...

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CHAPTER 1: INTRO TO EMBRYOLOGY EMBRYOLOGY The development of a human (or any other animal) begins at fertilization and continues until death. Embryology studies development from the time of fertilization until birth. We study embryology in order to gain an understanding of normal relationships of structures and the causes of congenital anomalies. As health professionals it is also important to have an understanding of embryology in order to understand how treatment may affect development. Gametes, the sex cells undergo a series of divisions called meiosis in which they halve the number of chromosomes. Human development begins at fertilization and ends at death Embryology is the study of human development from fertilization until birth Stages of Human Development Zygote - spermatozoon and oocyte unite Morula - 12 or more blastomeres Blastocyst - has a fluid filled cavity Embryo - 3rd to 8th week Fetus - from embryo to birth Importance of Embryology Embryology allows us to understand the normal relationships of structures and the causes of congenital anomalies Knowledge of embryology helps the primary care giver provide the embryo the best chance of survival Advisement Historical Highlights
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Early writings daVinci- drawings of uterine dissections Development of lenses Cell Theory Induction in vitro Fertilization Genetics Terminology Dorsal/Ventral Cranial/Caudal Proximal/Distal Sagittal/Transverse/Coronal GAMATOGENESIS MEIOSIS FIRST DIVISION Beginning point is the germ cell with 46 chromosomes (diploid) 1)DNA Replication (still 46 chromosomes but double the DNA) 2)Pairing of homologous chromosomes (one maternal, one paternal) 3)Exchange of chromosomal material between homologous pairs 4)Homologous chromosomal pairs separate (23 double structured chromosomes) 5)Cell divides (we now have 2 cells) SECOND DIVISION 1)Double structured chromosomes divide (haploid) 2)Cell divides (we now have 4 cells total) Female Reproductive Organs Ovaries Uterine Tubes Uterus
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Male Reproductive Organs Testes Gametogenesis Meiosis Cytoplasmic Differentiation Meiosis 2 divisions the first division reduces the number of chromosomes the second division reduces the number of chromatids Results of Meiosis Maintains a consistant number of chromosomes Genetic diversity random assortment relocation of chromosomal segments Spermatogenesis Spermatogonia are transformed into primary spermatocytes (begins at puberty) Primary spermatocytes undergo meiosis to form secondary spermatocytes and then spermatids Spermiogenesis-spermatids become sperms Oogenesis Oogonia enlarge to form primary oocytes prior to birth by birth all primary oocytes are in prophase of the first meiotic division the first division will be completed just prior to ovulation at ovulation the secondary oocyte begins the second division, stopping at metaphase
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ANAT 1502 Embryology Notes Chapters 1-9 - CHAPTER 1: INTRO...

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