ANAT 1502 Organogenesis Overview

ANAT 1502 Organogenesis Overview - Organogenesis Overview...

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Organogenesis Overview 12 Learning aims 13 Overview 14 Muscular system 15 Trunk and extremities 16 Cardiovascular system 17 Blood and lympatic tissue 18 Respiration tract 19 Digestion tract 20 Urinary system 21 Genital system 22 Nervous system Click on the desired module to get to it and its chapters. You can see a small selection of the modules's illustrations by clicking on images. Presentation of the learning aims of the individual modules of this course or, in other words, the knowledge that the student should acquire while working through this course material. Introduction to the course using the individual module summaries. The musculature of the human body stems from the middle germinal layer , the mesoderm . One distinguishes three varieties of muscles: skeletal musculature cardiac musculature smooth musculature The middle germinal layer forms through an inflow of cells with an ectodermal origin via the primitive streak and nodes. The mesoderm on both sides of the neural tube is called paraxial mesoderm . Out of it develops the musculature, among other things. Mesodermal cells more lateral form the intermediary mesoderm and completely lateral, at the transition to the extraembryonic structure, the lateral plate mesoderm forms. In the most cranial section of the embryo, in front of the prechordal plate, an accumulation of mesodermal cells form the cardiogenic plate , out of which the material for the cardiac musculature derives. As an in between step, the somites form from the paraxial mesoderm. These represent pairs of epithelialized mesodermal segments to the left and right of the neural tube. They do not last long in this form and differentiate further into skeletal
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musculature ( myotome ), the skin ( dermatome ) and the skeletal axis ( sclerotome ). The myotome cells go through various stages during their development to become skeletal musculature. The premyoblast is the first differentiated preliminary stage of the muscle cells, in that the cell bodies and the nucleus are lengthened. Responsible for this are several genes on the chromosome 11. They belong in the family of myogenic regulatory factors (MRF) and activate the transcription of muscle-specific genes. The premyoblast then transformsd itself into the myoblast which synthesizes the muscle-specific proteins actin and myosin . Subsequently, several myoblasts move together and form a syncytium, the myotubes . Initially, their nuclei are centrally located but with the beginning of neural activity they move to the periphery. The smooth musculature forms in the surroundings of organs such as the trachea, the digestive tract, blood vessels, etc. Like with skeletal musculature the differentiation occurs through induction of muscle-specific genes in the corresponding myoblasts. The first sign of cardiac development is the
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This note was uploaded on 11/21/2011 for the course ANAT 1502 taught by Professor Johnh.romfh during the Spring '10 term at Life Chiropractic College West.

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ANAT 1502 Organogenesis Overview - Organogenesis Overview...

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