CPAP 1502 Chapter 8 (FINAL)

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER
8:

REPRODUCTIVE
SYSTEM FEMALE
REPRODUCTIVE
SYSTEM
(FRS) COMBINING
 MEANING amni/o WORD
ANALYSIS amnion
(amnio(c
sac) cervic/o Amni/o/centesis=surgical
puncture
of
amnio(c
sac
to
remove
 fluid
for
lab
analysis neck;
cervix
uteri
(neck
of
uterus) Cervic/iGs=inflamma(on
of
cervix
uteri colp/o vagina vagin/o vagina Colp/o/scopy=
examina(on
of
vagina
&
cervix
with
an
op(cal
 magnifying
instrument
(colposcope) Vagin/o/cele=Hernia
projec(ng
into
the
vagina;
colpocele galact/o milk Galact/o/rrhea=
excessive
secre(on
of
milk lact/o milk gynec/o woman,
female Lact/o/gen=
drug
or
other
substance
that
enhances
the
 produc(on
&
secre(on
of
milk Gynec/o/logist=physician
specialize
in
trea(ng
disorders
of
FRS hyster/o uterus
(womb) Hyster/ectomy=
excision
of
the
uterus uter/o uterus
(womb) Uter/o/vagin/al=
pertaining
to
the
uterus
&
vagina mamm/o breast Mamm/o/gram=
radiograph
of
the
breast mast/o breast men/o menses,
menstrua(on metr/o uterus
(womb);
measure Mast/o/pexy=
surgical
fixa(on
of
the
breast(s).
Performed
to
 affix
sagging
breasts
2
more
elevated
posi(on,
improving
shape Men/o/rrhagia=
excessive
amount
of
menstrual
flow
over
a
 longer
dura(on
than
a
normal
menstrual
period Endo/metr/iGs=
inflammatory
condi(on
of
endometrium nat/o birth Pre/nat/al=
occurring
before
birth oophor/o ovary Oophor/oma=
ovarian
tumor ovari/o ovary Ovari/o/rrhexis=
rupture
of
an
ovary perine/o perineum salping/o episi/o tube
(usually
fallopian
or
 eustachian
[auditory]
tubes vulva Perine/o/rrhaphy=
suture
of
the
perineum.

Performed
to
repair
 a
lacera(on
that
occurs
spontaneously
or
is
made
surgically
 during
the
delivery
of
the
fetus. Salping/ectomy=
surgical
removal
of
a
fallopian
tube lapar/o abdomen vulv/o vulva Vulv/o/pathy=
any
disease
of
the
vulva hem/o;

hemat/o blood cyst/o bladder olig/o scanty muc/o mucus adip/o;

lip/o fat hydr/o water Episi/o/tomy=
incision
of
the
perineum
to
enlarge
the
vaginal
 opening
for
delivery. 1 PREFIXES MEANING PREFIXES MEANING men‐ menses pseudo‐ false primi‐ first mulG‐ many,
much retro‐ backward,
behind dys‐ bad;
painful;
difficult post‐ aNer,
behind pre‐ before,
in
front
of a‐;
an‐ without,
not;
(lack
of) hyper‐ excessive,
above
normal neo‐ new crypt‐ hidden SUFFIXES MEANING WORD
ANALYSIS ‐arche beginning Men/arche=
ini(al
menstrual
period.

Usually
occur
between
9‐17 ‐cyesis pregnancy ‐gravida Pregnant
woman Pseudo/cyesis=
condi(on
which
a
woman
believes
she’s
pregnant
 when
she
is
not;
false
pregnancy Primi/gravida=
woman
during
her
1st
pregnancy
 ‐salpinx ‐tocia tube
(usually
fallopian
or
 Eustachian
[auditory]
tubes childbirth,
labor ‐version turning ‐para to
bear
(offspring) ‐cele hernia,
swelling ‐oid resembling ‐logist specialist
in
study
of ‐pexy fixa(on
(of
an
organ) ‐logy study
of ‐plasty surgical
repair ‐ptosis prolapsed,
downward,
displacement ‐genesis forming,
producing,
origin ‐scope instrument
for
examining ‐tome instrument
to
cut ‐tomy incision ‐emia blood ‐algia;
‐dynia pain ‐gen forming,
producing,
origin ‐cide killing ‐ectomy excision,
removal ‐pathy disease ‐i
Gs inflamma(on ‐rrhea discharge,
flow ‐scopy visual
examina(on ‐ous
,‐ary
‐al,
‐ic,
‐ine
(p310) Hemat/o/sphinx=
collec(on
of
blood
in
a
fallopian
tube.

ONen
 associated
with
a
tubal
pregnancy;
aka
hemosalpinx Dys/tocia=
pathological
or
difficult
labor.
May
be
caused
by
an
 obstruc(on
/constric(on
of
birth
passage
or
abnormal
size,
shape,
 posi(on,
or
condi(on
of
the
fetus Retro/version=
(pping
back
of
an
organ.

Uterine
retroversion
is
 measured
as
1st,
2nd,
3rd
degree,
depending
on
the
angle
of
(lt
with
 respect
to
the
vagina. MulG/para=
woman
who
has
delivered
more
than
one
viable
infant ‐rrhagia
;
‐rrhage pertaining
to,
rela(ng
to burs(ng
forth
(of) ‐rrhexis rupture ‐rrhaphy suture ‐lith stone,
calculus ‐megaly enlargement ‐tocia childbirth,
labor ‐plasia
;
‐plasm forma(on,
growth ‐spasm involuntary
contrac(on,
twitching ‐ist specialist ‐ism condi(on ‐tropin s(mulate 2 MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM COMBINING
FORM MEANING WORD
ANALYSIS andr/o male balan/o glans
penis gonad/o gonads,
sex
glands orch/o tes(s
(plural,
testes) orchi/o tes(s
(plural,
testes) orchid/o tes(s
(plural,
testes) Gonad/o/tropin=
gonad‐s(mula(ng
hormone
that
s(mulates
the
 func(on
of
the
testes
and
ovaries Crypt/orch/ism=
development
defect
characterized
by
failure
of
one
or
 both
of
the
tes(cles
to
descend
into
the
scrotum Orchi/o/pexy=
surgery
performed
to
mobilize
an
undescended
tes(s,
 bring
it
into
the
scrotum,
and
a[ach
it
so
that
it
will
not
retract Orchid/ectomy=
excision
of
one
or
both
testes test/o tes(s
(plural,
testes) Test/algia=
pain
in
the
testes spermat/o spermatozoa,
sperm
cells Andr/o/gen=
substance
producing
or
s(mula(ng
the
development
of
 male
characteris(cs
(masculiniza(on),
such
as
the
hormones
 testosterone
and
androsterone Balan/iGs=
inflamma(on
of
the
glans
penis Spermat/o/cide=
chemical
substance
that
kills
spermatozoa;spermicide sperm/o spermatozoa,
sperm
cells A/sperm/ia=
failure
to
form
semen
(sperm)
or
ejaculate vas/o vessel;
vas
deferens;
duct Vas/ectomy=
removal
of
all
or
part
of
the
vas
deferens varic/o a
dilated
vein Varic/o/cele=
dilated
or
enlarged
vein
of
the
sperma(c
cord vesicul/o seminal
vesicle Vesicul/iGs=
inflamma(on
of
the
seminal
vesicle prostat/o prostate
gland Prostat/o/cyst/iGs=
inflamma(on
of
the
prostate
gland
and
bladder & ABBREVIATIONS ABBREVIATION MEANING ABBREVIATION MEANING CS cesarean
sec(on OB‐GYN obstetrics
gynecology C‐secGon cesarean
sec(on OCPs oral
contracep(ve
pills D
&
C dila(on
(dilata(on)
&
cure[age Pap papanicolaou
smear Dx,
dx diagnosis Para
1,2,3 GYN gynecology PID unipara,
bipara,
tripara,
(number
of
 viable
births pelvic
inflammatory
disease G gravida
(pregnant) PMP previous
menstrual
period IUD Iitrauterine
device TAH total
abdominal
hysterectomy IVP in
vitro
fer(liza(on TSS toxic
shock
syndrome LMP last
menstrual
period XY male
sex
chromosomes BPH benign
prosta(c
hyperplasia
benign
TUR,
TURP prosta(c
hypertrophy genitourinary GU 3 transurethral
resec(on
of
the
 prostate ADDITIONAL
TERMS andr/o




















male,
man,
masculine





















ex:
androgenic,
android ante‐























before

















































ex:
antepartum cata‐























prefix
meaning
down,
downward,
ex:
catamenia
(menstrua(on) 































destruc(ve,
against
 
 
 cata
–
down 















 
 





























 men
–
menses 
 
 























ia
–
condi(on crypt/o


















hidden

















































ex:
cryptorchism cyes/o,
cyes/i







pregnancy
 
 











ex:
pseudocyesis
(false
pregnancy) gravid/o
 
 men/o



















menses
















































ex:
menarche
(arche
=

beginning) nat/o





















birth





















































ex:
neonatal omphal/o













umbilicus,
navel
































ex:
omphali(s ‐one






















suffix
meaning
hormone


















ex:
testosterone os
(pl.
ora)











mouth,
opening


































ex:
os
uteri sept/i‐


















combining
form
meaning
seven






ex:
sep(gravida toc/o,
‐tocia








childbirth,
labor


































ex:
dystocia PATHOLOGICAL,
DIAGNOSTIC,
and
THERAPEUTIC
TERMS
p.338‐344 Female
ReproducGve
System Candidiasis
=
vaginal
fungal
infec(on
caused
by
Candida
albicans,
characterized
by
a
curdy
or
cheeselike
discharge
and
 extreme
itching. CerviciGs=
acute
inflamma(on
of
the
uterine
cervix.
The
principle
cause
agent
is
STDs,
but
many
infec9ons
are
nonspecific
 with
unknown
pathogens Eclampsia
=
gravest
form
of
pregnancy‐induced
hypertension. Ectopic
pregnancy
=
implanta(on
of
the
fer(lized
ovum
outside
of
the
uterine
cavity.

E.P.
occurs
in
approximately
1%
of
 pregnancies,
mostly
in
the
oviducts
(tubal
pregnancy).

Some
types
of
E.P.
include
ovarian,
inters99al,
and
isthmic. Endometriosis
=
presence
of
endometrial
(ssue
outside
(ectopic)
the
uterine
cavity
such
as
the
pelvis
or
abdomen. Fibroma
(fibroma)
of
the
uterus
=
benign
neoplasm
consis(ng
of
fibrous
encapsulated
connec(ve
(ssue. Leukorrhea
=


white
discharge
from
the
vagina.

The
greater
than
usual
amount
of
leukorrhea
is
normal
in
pregnancy,
and
a
 decrease
is
to
be
expected
aGer
delivery,
during
lacta9on,
and
aGer
menopause.
Leukorrhea
is
the
most
common
reason
 women
seek
gynecological
care. Oligomenorrhea
=
scanty
or
infrequent
menstrual
flow. Pyosalpinx
=
pus
in
the
fallopian
tube. Retroversion
=
turning,
or
state
of
being
turned
back,
especially
an
en(re
organ
being
(pped
from
its
normal
posi(on 
(ex.
the
uterus). Sterility
=
inability
of
a
woman
to
become
pregnant
or
for
a
man
to
impregnant
a
woman. Toxic
shock
syndrome
=
rare
and
some(mes
fatal
disease
caused
by
a
toxin
or
toxins
produced
by
certain
strains
of
the
 bacterium
Staphylococcus
aureus.
TSS
usually
occurs
in
young
menstrua9ng
women,
most
of
whom
were
using
vaginal
 tampons
for
menstrual
protec9on. 4 MALE
REPRODUCTION
SYSTEM Anorchsim
=
congenital
absence
of
one
or
both
testes. BalaniGs
=
inflamma(on
of
the
skin
covering
the
glans
penis. Crytorchidism
=
failure
of
tes(cles
to
descend
into
scrotum. Epispadias
=
congenital
defect
which
the
urethra
opens
on
the
upper
side
of
the
penis,
near
the
glans
penis,instead
of
the
(p. Hypospadias
=
congenital
defect
in
which
the
male
urethra
opens
on
the
undersurface
of
the
penis
instead
of
the
(p. Impotence
=
inability
of
an
man
to
achieve
or
maintain
a
penile
erec(on. Phimosis
=
stenosis
or
narrowness
of
prepu(al
orifice
so
that
the
foreskin
cannot
be
pushed
back
over
the
glans
penis. SEXUALLY
TRANSMITTED
DISEASES 
 STD
=
any
disease
that
may
be
acquired
as
a
result
of
sexual
intercourse
or
other
in(mate
contact
with
an
infected
 individual
and
affects
the
male
and
female
reproduc(ve
system.

AKA
venereal
disease. Chlamydia
=
caused
by
infec(on
with
the
bacterium
Chlamydia
trachoma9s,
the
most
prevalent
and
among
the
most
 damaging
of
all
STDs.

In
women,
chlamydial
infec9ons
cause
cervici9s
with
a
mucopurulent
discharge
and
an
alarming
 increase
in
pelvic
infec9ons.

In
men,
chlamydial
infec9ons
cause
urethri9s
with
a
whi9sh
discharge
from
the
penis. Genital
warts=
wart(s)
in
the
genitalia
caused
by
human
papillomavirus
(HPV).

In
women,
genital
warts
may
be
associated
 with
cancer
of
the
cervix. Gonorrhea=
contagious
bacterial
infec(on;
most
oNen
affects
the
genitourinary
tract
and
occasionally
the
pharynx
or
rectum.
 Infec9ons
result
from
contact
with
an
infected
person
or
with
secre9ons
containing
the
causa9ve
organism
Neisseria
 gonorrhoeae.

In
men,
symptoms
include
dysuria
and
greenish
yellow
discharge
from
the
urethra.
In
women,
the
chief
 symptom
is
a
vaginal
greenish
discharge;
can
be
transmiLed
to
the
fetus
during
delivery.
 Herpes
genitalis
=
infec(on
in
females
&
males
of
the
genital
and
anorectal
skin
and
mucosa
with
herpes
simplex
virus
type
2. This
viral
infec9on
may
be
transmiLed
to
the
fetus
during
delivery
and
may
be
fatal. Syphilis=
infec(ous,
chronic
venereal
disease
characterized
by
lesions
that
change
to
a
chancre
and
may
involve
any
organ
or
 (ssue.

It
usually
exhibits
cutaneous
manifesta(ons.
Relapses
of
syphilis
are
frequent;
it
may
exist
without
symptoms
for
years
 and
can
be
transmiLed
from
mother
to
fetus. Trichomoniasis=
infesta(on
with
a
parasite
of
genus
Trichomonas;
oNen
causes
vagini(s,
urethri(s,
and
cys((s. DIAGNOSTICS FEMALE
REPRODUCTIVE
SYSTEM Amniocentesis
=
obstetric
procedure
of
a
surgical
puncture
of
the
amnio(c
sace
under
ultrasound
guidance
to
remove
 amnio(c
fluid.

The
cells
of
the
fetus,
found
in
the
fluid,
are
cultured
and
studied
chemically
and
cytologically
to
detect
gene9c
 abnormali9es,
biochemical
disorders,
and
maternal‐fetal
blood
incompa9bility. Colposcopy=
examina(on
of
the
vagina
and
cervix
with
an
op(cal
magnifying
instrument
(colposcope);
this
is
commonly
 performed
aNer
a
Pap
testto
obtain
biopsy
specimens
of
the
cervix. Hysterosalpingography
=
radiography
of
the
uterus
and
oviducts
aNer
injec(on
of
a
contrast
medium. Laparoscopy
=
visual
examina(on
of
the
abdominal
cavity
with
a
laparoscope
through
one
or
more
small
incisions
in
the
 abdominal
wall,
usually
at
the
umbilicus.

Laparoscopy
is
used
for
inspec9on
of
the
ovaries
and
fallopian
tubes,
diagnosis
of
 endometriosis,
destruc9on
of
uterine
leiomyomas,
myomectomy,
and
gynecologic
steriliza9on.
 5 Mammography
=
radiography
of
the
breast
that
is
used
to
diagnose
benign
and
malignant
tumors. Papanicolaou
(Pap)
test
=
microscopic
analysis
of
cells
taken
from
the
cervix
and
vagina
to
detect
the
presence
of
carcinoma.

 Cells
are
obtained
aNer
the
inser(on
of
a
vaginal
speculum
and
the
use
of
a
swab
to
scrape
a
small
(ssue
sample
from
the
 cervix
and
vagina. Ultrasonography=
imaging
technique
that
uses
high‐frequency
sound
waves
(ultrasound)
that
bounce
off
body
(ssue
and
are
 recorded
to
produce
an
image
of
an
internal
organ
or
(ssue.

Ultrasonic
echoes
are
recorded
and
interpreted
by
a
computer,
 which
produces
a
detailed
image
of
the
organ.
Pelvic
ultrasonography
is
used
to
evaluate
the
female
reproduc9ve
organs
and
 the
fetus
during
pregnancy,
transvaginal
ultrasonography
places
the
sound
probe
in
the
vagina
instead
of
across
the
pelvis
or
 abdomen,
producing
a
sharper
examina9on
of
normal
and
pathologic
structures
within
the
pelvis. MALE
REPRODUCTIVE
SYSTEM Digital
rectal
examinaGon=
examina(on
of
the
prostate
gland
by
finger
palpa(on
through
the
rectum.

DRE
is
performed
 usually
physical
examina9on
to
detect
prostate
enlargement. Prostate‐specific
anGgen
(PSA)
test
=
blood
test
to
screen
for
prostate
cancer;
elevated
levels
of
PSA
are
associated
with
 prostate
cancer
and
enlargement. THERAPEUTIC FEMALE
REPRODUCTIVE
SYSTEM Cerclage
=
obstetric
procedure
in
which
a
nonabsorbable
suture
is
used
for
holding
the
cervix
closed
to
prevent
spontaneous
 abor(on
in
a
woman
who
has
incompetent
cervix. DilaGon
and
cure`age
=
surgical
procedure
that
expands
the
cervical
canal
of
the
uterus
(dila(on)
so
that
the
surface
lining
of
 the
uterine
wall
can
be
scraped
(cure[age).

D
&
C
is
performed
to
stop
prolonged
or
heavy
uterine
bleeding,
diagnose
uterine
 abnormali9es,
empty
uterine
contents
of
concep9on
9ssue,
and
obtain
9ssue
for
microscopic
examina9on. Hysterosalpingo‐oophorectomy
=
surgical
removal
of
a
fallopian
tube
and
an
ovary. Mastectomy
=
complete
or
par(al
surgical
removal
of
one
or
both
breasts,
most
commonly
performed
to
remove
a
malignant
 tumor.

A
mastectomy
may
be
simple,
radical,
or
modified
depending
on
the
extent
of
the
malignancy
and
the
amount
of
 breast
9ssue
excised. Tubal
ligaGon
=
steriliza(on
procedure
that
involves
blocking
both
fallopian
tubes
by
cueng/burning
them
&
tying
them
off. MALE
REPRODUCTION
SYSTEM Circumscision
=
surgical
removal
of
the
foreskin
or
prepuce
of
the
penis,
which
usually
is
performed
on
the
male
as
an
infant. Gonadotropins
=
hormonal
prepara(ons
used
to
increase
the
sperm
count
in
infer(lity
cases. 6 ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/21/2011 for the course CPAP 1502 taught by Professor Johnh.romfh during the Spring '10 term at Life Chiropractic College West.

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