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ANAT 1507 Osteology and Arthology Midterm

ANAT 1507 Osteology and Arthology Midterm - Paul Early...

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Paul Early Osteology and Arthology Midterm I. Skeletal System a. Axial skeleton —consists of the bones of the head (cranium), neck (hyoid bone and cervical vertebrae, and trunk (ribs sternum, vertebrae, and sacrum) b. Appendicular Skeleton —consists of the bones of the limbs (including shoulder and pelvic girdles) II.Cartilage and Bones a. Cartilage —resilient, semirigid form of connective tissue that forms parts of the skeleton where more flexibility is required. b. Bone —living tissue, highly specialized, hard form of the connective tissue that makes up the most of the skeleton. i. supports body and vital cavities ii. protection for vital cavities iii. mechanical basis for movement (leverage) iv. storage for salts (i.e. calcium) v. a continuous supply of new blood cells (produced in bone marrow) c. periostuem —fibrous connective tissue surrounding each skeletal element like a sleeve except for where cartilage occurs d. perichondrium —surrounds cartilage in the same way periosteum surrounds bone i. IE—Both periousteum and perichondrium nourish the xternal aspects of the skeletal tissue. Capable of laying down more cartilage or bone and provide the interface for attachment of tendons and ligaments. e. Compact Bone & Spongy Bone— Distinguishable by the relative amount of solid matter and by the number and size of the spaces they contain. f. Spicules— trabeculae g. Classification of Bones i. long bones—tubular (humerus in the arm) ii. short bones—coboidal such as in the ankle and wrist (tarsus and carpus) iii. flat bones—usually serve protective functioning (those forming the cranium) iv. irregular bones—various shapes other than long, short, or flat (ethmoid, sphenoid) v. sesamoid bones—(patella or knee cap) develop in certain tendons and are found where tendons cross the ends of long bones in the limbs; they protect the tendons from wear and tear. vi. suturial—bones fused together (coronal, sagittal, lamboidal) h. Bone markings and Formations i. capitulum—small, round, articular head (the capitulum of the humerus)
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ii. condyle—rounded, knuckle-like articular area, usually occurring in pairs (condyle on femur fitting into the tibia) iii. crest—ridge of bone (iliac crest on hip bone) iv. epicondyle—eminence superior to a condyle (lateral epicondyle of the humerus) v. facet—smoot flat area, usually covered with cartilage, where a bone articulates with another bone. vi. foramen—passage through a bone vii. fossa—hollow or depressed area viii. groove—elongated depression or furrow ix. head—large round articular end (radial groove of humerus—connects radius and ulna) x. line—linear elevation xi. malleolus—rounded process xii. notch—indentation at the edge of a bone (mandibular notch) xiii. protuberance—projection of the bone (inion) xiv. spine—thorn like process (spine of the scapula) xv. spinous process—projecting spine-like part (spinous process of vertebrae) xvi. trochanter—large blunt elevation (greater trochanter of the femur) xvii.
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