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ANAT 1507 Osteology Lab Final Study Guide

ANAT 1507 Osteology Lab Final Study Guide - Right Clavicle...

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Unformatted text preview: Right Clavicle: superior view Anterior side Posterior side Trapezoid line Posterior side Anterior side Costal tuberosity Subclavian groove Right Clavicle: inferior view Clavicle; (L., clavicula, little key) a. Sternal or medial end - triangular-shaped medial surface; articulates with manubrium of sternum; useful landmark to identify medial side of clavicle. b. Acromial or lateral end - flattened, lateral surface; articulates with acromion of scapula; useful landmark to identify lateral side of clavicle. c. Conoid tubercle - small bump on inferior surface, near acromial end; serves as attachment point for a ligament; useful landmark to identify inferior surface of clavicle. d. Costal tuberosity (= impression for costo-clavicular ligament or rhomboid impression) - roughened oval elevation on medial (sternal) side of inferior surface; serves as attachment point for costoclavicular ligament. e. Subclavian groove - longitudinal indentation that runs along inferior surface from the costal tuberosity to conoid tubercle; serves as attachment point for subclavius muscle. f. Trapezoid line or ridge - elevation that runs obliquely from the conoid tubercle to the lateral end of bone; serves as attachment point for the trapezoid ligament. Copyright. www.GetBodySmart.com by ConceptCreators, Inc. Right Scapula: Anterior View a. Superior angle — a sharp curvature formed at the junction of the superior and medial margins; serves as an attachment point for the levator scapula muscle. b. Superior border or margin - the superior edge. c. Suprascapular (scapular) notch - small indentation along the superior border medial to the coracold process. d. Acromion (Gr., akron, extremity + omos, shoulder) — a lateral, fan—like extension of the spine; serves as an attachment point for the trapezlus and deltold muscles. e. Coracoid process (Gr., korax, crow's beak + eldos, form) — a prominent, curved projection located along the superior margin; serves as an attachment point for the biceps brachll, coracobrachlalls, and pectoralls mlnor muscles. f. Glenoid fossa or cavity — (Gr., glene, socket + eldos, form) — smooth, concave surface located at the lateral angle of the scapula; area of articulation with the head of the humerus. g. Infraglenoid tubercle — a small prominence on the inferior margin of the glenold cavlty; serves as an attachment point for the triceps brachll muscle. h. Subscapular fossa — the slightly depressed region found in the middle of the anterior side of the scapula; serves as an attachment point for the subscapularls muscle. l. Lateral border or margin — the lateral edge of the scapula; also known as the axillary margin; serves as an attachment point for the teres mlnor muscle. j. Medial border or margin — the medial edge that faces the vertebral column; also known as the vertebral margin; serves as an attachment point for the rhombold and serratus anterior muscles. k. Inferior angle — the sharp curvature formed at the junction of the medial and lateral margins; serves as an attachment point for the teres major muscle. Copyright. GetBodySmart.com by ConceptCreators, Inc. Copyright. GetBodySmart.com a. Superior angle — sharp curvature formed at the junction of the superior and medial margins; serves as attachment point for levator scapula muscle. b. Superior border or margin — superior edge of bone. c. Scapular (suprascapular) notch — small indentation along the superior border; medial to coracoid process. d. Acromion (Gr., akron, extremity + omos, shoulder) — lateral, fan—like extension of spine; serves as attachment point for trapezius and deltoid muscles. e. Coracoid process (Gr., korax, crow's beak + eidos, form) — prominent, curved projection located along superior margin; serves as attachment point for biceps brachii, coraco—brachialis, and pectoralis minor muscles. f. Glenoid fossa or cavity (Gr., glene, socket + eidos, form) — smooth, concave surface located at lateral angle of bone; area of articulation with head of humerus. g. Infraglenoid tubercle — small prominence on inferior margin of glenoid fossa; serves as attachment point for the triceps brachii muscle. h. Spine — long, prominent ridge that runs diagonally across upper posterior surface of bone; serves as attachment point for trapezius and deltoid muscles. i. Supraspinous fossa — slightly depressed area superior to spine; serves as attachment point for supraspinatus muscle. j. Infraspinous fossa — area inferior to spine; serves as attachment point for infraspinatus muscle. k. Lateral border or margin (axillary margin) — lateral edge of bone; serves as attachment point for teres minor muscle. l. Medial border or margin (vertebral margin) — medial edge that faces the vertebral column; serves as attachment point for rhomboid and serratus anterior muscles. m. Inferior angle — sharp curvature found at junction of medial and lateral margins; serves as attachment point for teres major muscle. a. Head — a large, rounded, smooth surface that projects medially from the proximal end; area of articulation with the glenoid fossa of the scapula. b. Anatomical neck — region between the head and tubercles where the width of the bone narrows slightly. c. Greater tubercle — a large, roughened area located on the proximal end of the bone, lateral to the head; serves as an attachment point for the pectoralis major, supraspinatus, infraspinatus and teres minor muscles. Right Humerus; Anterior View d. Lesser tubercle — a roughened area located on the anterior surface medial to the greater tubercle; serves as an attachment point for the sub— scapularis muscle. e. Intertubercular (= bicipital) groove — a narrow depression found between the greater and lesser tubercles; serves as a passageway for the tendon of the long head of the biceps brachii and as an attachment point for the teres major and latissimus dorsi muscles. f. Surgical neck — region inferior to the tubercles where many breaks occur. g. Deltoid tuberosity — a roughened, raised surface located approximately in the middle of the shaft on the lateral side; serves as an attachment point for the deltoid muscle. h. Lateral supracondylar ridge — roughened edge of bone that is located above the lateral epicondyle; serves as an attachment point for the brachioradialis muscle. i. Lateral epicondyle — a small projection found at the distal end of the bone, on the lateral side; serves as an attachment point for muscles that extend the forearm and hand. j. Medial epicondyle — a prominent projection found at the distal end of the bone, on the medial side; serves as an attachment point for muscles that flex the forearm and hand. k. Capitulum (L., small head) — a rounded, knob—like surface on the anterior, distal end; region of articulation with the head of the radius bone. l. Trochlea — a pulley—shaped formation located on the anteriodistal end, next to the capitulum; region of articulation with the proximal end of the ulna bone. m. Coronoid fossa — a large depression positioned superior to the trochlea on the anterior surface; region of articulation with the coronoid process of the ulna when the forearm is flexed. n. Radial fossa — a small depression located superior to the capitulum on the anterior surface; region of articulation with the head of the radius when the forearm is flexed. Copyright. ConceptCreators, Inc. (GetBodySmart.com) Right Humerus; Posterior View a. Head — a large, rounded, smooth surface that projects medially from the proximal end; area of articulation with the glenold fossa of the scapula. b. Anatomical neck — region of between the head and tubercles where the width of the bone narrows slightly. c. Greater tubercle — a large, roughened area located on the proximal end of the bone, lateral to the head; serves as an attachment point for the pectoralls major, suprasplnatus, lnfrasplnatus and teres mlnor muscles. d. Surgical neck — reglon inferior to the tubercles where many breaks occur. e. Deltoid tuberosity — a roughened, ralsed surface located approximately in the middle of the shaft on the lateral side; serves as an attachment point for the deltold muscle. f. Radial groove — a shallow groove that runs diagonally along the posterior surface of the bone bone, medlal to the deltold tuberosity; forms a partial passageway for the radial nerve. 9. Lateral supracondylar ridge - roughened edge of bone that is located above the lateral eplcondyle; serves as an attachment point for the brachloradlalls muscle. h. Lateral epicondyle — a small projection found at the distal end of the bone, on the lateral side; serves as an attachment point for muscles that extend the forearm and hand. i. Medial epicondyle — a prominent projection found at the distal end of the bone, on the medial slde; serves as an attachment point for muscles that flex the forearm and hand. j. Trochlea — a pulley—shaped formation located on the anterlodlstal end, next to the capltulum; region of articulation with the proximal end of the ulna bone. k. Olecranon fossa (Gr., olecranon, elbow) — a large depression located on the posterior surface, superior to the trochlea and capltulum; area of articulation with the olecranon process of the ulna when the forearm is extended. Copyright. ConceptCreators, Inc. (GetBodySmart.com) Right Radius: Anterior View Right Ulna: Anterior View a. Head of radius — disc—shaped prominence at proximal end of bone; forms articulating surface with capitulum of humerus. b. Radial tuberosity — roughened projection along proximal medioanterlor margin; serves as an attachment point for biceps brachii muscle. c. Olecranon process of ulna — large, fan—shaped projection from proximal end of trochlear notch; forms elbow. cl. Trochlear (semilunar) notch of ulna — large depression at proximal end of bone; area of articulation with trochlea of humerus. e. Coronoid process of ulna (Gr., korone, crown + eidos, form) - anterior projection from trochlear notch. f. Ulnar tuberosity — roughened distal end of coronoid process; serves as an attachment point for brachlalis muscle. 9. Radial notch of ulna — depression along lateral edge of coronoid process; area of articulation with head of radius. h. Interosseous border of ulna — sharp medial border; attachment point for interosseous membrane that helps hold radius to ulna. i. Interosseous border of radius — sharp lateral border; attachment point for interosseous membrane that helps hold radius to ulna. j. Styloid process of radius (Gr., stylos, pillar + eidos, form) — pointed lateral projection at distal end of bone; forms lateral portion of wrist joint. k. Styloid process of ulna — small, medial projection from head region; forms medial portion of wrist joint. I. Ulnar notch of radius — slight depression at mediodlstal end; area of articulation with ulna. m. Head of ulna — small, rounded surface at distal end of bone. Copyright. www.GetBodySmart.com by ConceptCreators, Inc. Right Ulna; posterior view Right Radius; posterior view Radius & Ulna ((L., radius, ray; L., ulna, elbow) a. Head of radius - disc-shaped, proximal end of bone. b. Olecranon process of ulna - large, fan-shaped projection from proximal end of trochlear notch; forms elbow. c. Interosseous border of ulna - sharp medial border; attachment point for interosseous membrane that helps hold radius to ulna. cl. Interosseous border of radius - sharp lateral border; attachment point for interosseous membrane that helps hold radius to ulna. e. Ulnar notch of radius - slight depression at mediodistal end of bone; area of articulation with ulna. 1‘. Head of ulna - small, rounded surface at distal end of bone. g. Styloid process of radius (Gr., stylos, pillar + eidos, form) - pointed, lateral projection at distal end of bone; forms lateral portion of wrist joint. h. Styloid process of ulna - small, medial projection from head region; forms medial portion of wrist joint. Copyright. www.GetBodySmart.com by ConceptCreators, Inc. anterior (palmar) view t Right Wrist & Hand; ‘ ‘ ‘ Carpal bones (Gr., karpalis, the wrist); Proximal row, in sequence from lateral (thumb side) to medial finger side). 1. Scaphoid (navicular) bone (Gr., skaphe, skiff + eidos, form). 2. Lunate bone (L., luna, moon). 3. Triquetral (triangular) bone (L. triquetrous, triangular). 4. Pisiform bone (L., pisum, pea + forma, shape). Distal row, in sequence from lateral (thumb—side) to medial (little finger side). 1. Trapezium (greater multangular) bone (Gr., tetrapeza, object that has four feet). 2. Trapezoid (lesser multangular) bone (Gr., trapezoid, a four—sided figure that has two parallel sides). 3. Capitate bone (L., caput, head). 4. Hamate bone (L., hamat, hooked). Copyright. www.GetBodySmart.com by ConceptCreators, Inc. 0 Metacarpals Right Hand; anterior or palmar view Metacarpals Bones: (Gr., meta, beyond + karpos, wrist) - five bones found in palm of hand. Numbering of bones begins on thumb side. a. lst metacarpal. b. 2nd metacarpal. c. 3rd metacarpal. d. 4th metacarpal. e. 5th metacarpal. Copyright. www.GetBodySmart.com by ConceptCreators, Inc. O Distal Phalanges 5% l 0 Middle Phalanges ‘4: E I O Proximal Phalangesi Right Hand; anterior or palmar view . Phalanx Bones; (Gr., phalanx, closely knit row) - fourteen bones found in the fingers. Each finger consists of 3 phalanges, except the thumb, which has only two. Proximal Middle Distal 15t phalanx 15t phalanx 2nd phalanx 2nd phalanx 2nd phalanx 3rd phalanx 3rd phalanx 3rd phalanx 4th phalanx 4th phalanx 4th phalanx 5th phalanx 5th phalanx 5th phalanx Copyright. www.GetBodySmart.com by ConceptCreators, Inc. Anterior gluteal |ine a. Iliac crest - roughened, superior margin; serves as an attachment point for the latissimus Tubercle of iliac crest Inferior gluteal |ine dorsi, iliocostalis, tensor fasciae Posterior Iliac crest Iatae, and abdominal muscles. gluteal |ine Anterior superior b. Tubercle of the iliac crest — Posterior superior iliac spine prominent projection from the ”'ac spine :1llfjeproinl‘5 of the crest, near Its Posterior Inferior Anteriorinferior 'I'ac spine iliac spine c. Anterior superior iliac spine Greater — rounded projection from the sciatic notch anterior portion of the crest; serves _ _ Acetabulum as an attachment point for the Ischialspine _ _ sartorius muscle and inguinal . . SUPEFIOr PUbIC ramus ligament. Lesser scnatic notch Pubic body d.Anterior inferior iliac spine Obturator foramen —sma|l projection found below the Ischialtuberosity superior spine; serves as an attachment point for the rectus femoris muscle. Os Coxa; Lateral View Add Colors e. Posterior superior iliac spine — small projection from the posterior of the crest; serves as an attachment point for ligaments that hold the pelvis together. Inferior pubic ramus Ischial ramus h. Posterior gluteal line — a slightly elevated, vertical ridge located along the posterior aspect of the lateral surface, just anterior to the spines; serves as an attachment point for gluteus maximus muscle. i. Inferior gluteal line — a slightly elevated ridge that runs diagonally from anterior to posterior along the lateral surface of the os coxa above the acetabulum; serves as an attachment point for the gluteus minimus muscle. j. Greater sciatic notch (L., sciaticus, pertaining to the hip or ischium) — large indentation located below the posterior inferior spine; forms a passageway for the sciatic nerve. k. Acetabulum (L., a little saucer for vinegar) — large, round depression located on the lateral surface; area of articulation with the head of the femur. l. Superior pubic ramus — narrow band of bone that runs along the superior aspect of the pubis. m. Pubic body — flattened, medial portion of the pubis; serves as an attachment point for the adductor brevis, adductor longus, and gracilis muscles. n. Inferior pubic ramus — narrow band of bone that extends along the inferior border of the pubis (to join the ischial ramus); serves as an attachment point for the adductor brevis, adductor magnus, and gracilis muscles. 0. Obturator foramen (L., obturare, to stop up) — large oval opening located between the pubis and ischium; the foramen lightens the os coxa and is covered by the obturator membrane, a ligamentous structure that serves as a point of attachment for the obturator muscles. p. Ramus of ischium (L., branch) — narrow band of bone that projects anteriorly from the ischial tuberosity; serves as an attachment point for the adductor magnus muscle. q. Ischial tuberosity — large, roughened curv—ature located at the junction of the posterior and inferior borders of the ischium; serves as an attachment point for the hamstring muscles and supports the weight of the body when sitting. r. Lesser sciatic notch — a small indentation along the posterior margin, inferior to the ischial spine; forms part of a foramen for nerves and vessels that exit the pelvis. s. Ischial spine — sharp projection that extends from the posterior margin of the ischium; serves as an attachment point for the sacrospinous ligament. Copyright. www.GetBodySmart.oom by ConceptCreators, Inc. a. Iliac crest - roughened superior margin; serves as attachment point for latissimus dorsi, iliocostalis, tensor fasciae Iatae, and abdominal muscles. b. Anterior superior iliac spine — projec—tion from anterior portion of iliac crest; serves as attachment point for sartorius muscle and inguinal ligament. c. Anterior inferior iliac spine — projection found below superior spine; serves as an attachment point for rectus femoris muscle. Iliac fossa Iliac tuberosity IlIaC CFESt Auricular surface Anterior superior _ _ iliac spine Posterior superior iliac spine Anterior inferior iliac spine Posterior inferior iliac spine Arcuate line Greater sciatic notch Superior pubic ramus Pubic body Ischial spine Lesser sciatic notch Pubic tubercle _ _ Ischial tuberOSIty Pubic crest . Ischial ramus d. Posterior superior iliac spine - projection from posterior of iliac crest; serves attachment point for ligaments that hold pelvis together. Symphysis pUbiS Obturator foramen _ _ Inferior pubic ramus Os Coxa; Medial View Add Colors e. Posterior inferior iliac spine — curvature found directly inferior to the posterior superior spine; serves as attachment point for ligaments that hold pelvis together. f. Iliac fossa — broad depression located along anteromedial surface; serves as attachment point for the iliacus muscle. g. Iliac tuberosity — large roughened area located above auricular surface; serves as attachment point for sacroiliac ligaments that help bind os coxa and sacrum. h. Auricular surfa_c_e (L., auricula, little ear) — prominent roughened sulcus (groove) that runs anteriorly along intera|_ surface of ilium from posterior inferior spine; area of articulation with auricular surface of sacrum (sacroiliac Joint). i. Arcuate line (L., arcuatus, bowed) — prom—inent bony ridge inferior to the auricular surface that arches across internal aspect of ilium. j. Greater sciatic notch (L., sciaticus, pertaining to hip or ischium) — large indentation located below posterior inferior spine; forms a passageway for sciatic nerve. k. Ischial spine — sharp projection that extends from the posterior margin of the ischium; serves as an attachment point for the sacrospinous ligament. l. Lesser sciatic notch — small indentation along posterior margin, inferior to ischial spine; forms part of a foramen for nerves and vessels that exit pelvis. m. Obturator foramen (L., obturare, to stop up) — large oval opening located between pubis and ischium; lightens os coxa; covered by obturator membrane, a ligamentous structure that serves as attachment point for obturator muscles. n. Ischial tuberosity — large roughened curvature located at junction of posterior and inferior borders of ischium; serves as attachment point for hamstring muscles and supports weight of body when sitting. o. Ramus of ischium (L., branch) — narrow band of bone that projects anteriorly from the ischial tuberosity; serves as an attachment point for the adductor magnus mu...
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