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CHEM 1516 Biochem II Abby's Notes Part I

CHEM 1516 Biochem II Abby's Notes Part I - 1 BIOCHEMISTRY...

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BIOCHEMISTRY II; METABOLISM These notes are a composite of Dr. Silverman’s handouts with my own notes and interpretations added. Some of the information may be incorrect. In the event of contradictory information, get it clarified by Dr. Silverman. Best of Luck this quarter! Dr. Abby TABLE OF CONTENTS Subject Pages Part 1 Introduction 2 Bioenergetics 2 – 4 Overview of Metabolism 5 – 6 Glycolysis 7 – 10 Part 2 Gluconeogenesis (GNG) 11 – 13 Glycogen 14 Glycogenesis 15 Glycogenolysis 16 Clinical Chemistry 17 – 18 Part 3 TCA Cycle 19 – 23 Cellular Respiration 24 Electron Transport Chain (ETC) 25 Oxidative Phosphorylation (OxPhos) 26 Part 4 Lipid Metabolism 27 – 31 Amino Acids 32 – 37 Nucleic Acids 37 – 38 1
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PART 1 I. Introduction to Biochem II A. Course Outline 1. Introduction to metabolism 2. Bioenergetics 3. Digestion and Carbohydrates 4. Lipids 5. Proteins 6. Nucleic Acids B. Review from Biochemistry I 1. Homeostasis a. Homeostasis = the maintenance of certain bodily characteristics within a normal range. b. Examples of things that are usually maintained in homeostasis include body temperature, blood glucose levels, and pH. c. Hormones regulate homeostasis. These hormones are regulated by negative and positive feedback systems. 2. 3. Functional Groups determine properties a. Carbonyl (Aldehyde or Ketone) b. Carboxyl c. Hydroxyl d. Methyl and Ethyl e. Amino f. Phenyl C. Metabolism 1. Metabolism = the making or breaking of compounds in the body 2. a. An anabolic reaction uses energy to build a molecule b. A catabolic reaction releases energy in the process of breaking down a molecule 3. Catalysts 4. First law of thermodynamics = we cannot create or destroy energy. Metabolism is about breaking, moving, and remaking bonds. You must count Carbons and keep track of energy. II. Bioenergetics A. Definition of Bioenergetics = the management of energy in living organisms 1. a. People (heterotrophs) get free energy by catabolism of nutrients (diet) and use that energy to make ATP from ADP + Pi vs. Plants (autotrophs), which are able to make their own food. WE KILL TO LIVE. b. ATP = energy for Anabolism and function (such as active transport, muscle action) 2. a. Changes in energy in biochemical reactions can be analyzed quantitatively to predict whether a reaction will take place. b. Bioenergetics concerns ONLY the initial and final energy states of reaction components, NOT the mechanism OR the kinetics of the reaction. The path doesn’t matter, only the beginning and ending points. c.
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CHEM 1516 Biochem II Abby's Notes Part I - 1 BIOCHEMISTRY...

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