CPAP 1605 Week 2 - The History of Chiropractic The History...

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Unformatted text preview: The History of Chiropractic The History of Chiropractic CPAP 1605 David B. Koch, DC, LCP, DPhCS Antecedents to Chiropractic Antecedents to Chiropractic Health Care from 3000 BC to 1895 • • 3000 BC Imhotep (mhotep) – the “Great Physician” – Took care of the body and mind – Devoid of drugs, primarily magical/religious nature. • Ebers/Smith Papyri (written 2500 BC) – These writings covered several physician/priests – All were given the title “Imhotep.” • 2000 B.C. – Historical writings called Vedas outline medical concepts of the Orient. • Georg Ebers and Edwin Smith discovered 7 papyri that gave insight into early Egyptian medical practices • One Ebers papyrus contains the earliest known descriptions of many medical practices • Specifically, this papyrus, and the supporting papyri accompanying it, provide the first written evidence of medical practices such as surgery, pharmacology, mechanical manipulation, and magical treatments • The Ebers /Smith papyri have been carbon­dated as early as 2500 B.C. Antecedents to Chiropractic Antecedents to Chiropractic Health Care from 3000 BC to 1895 • 1000 BC • Greece is commonly considered the source of most acknowledged medical models of practice. • Aesclepius – Greek physician, eventually deified • Incubation Rites at the Aesclepian Temples – Gave medicine the caduceus (See article on BB) • Greek philosophers ushered in a new age of Antecedents to Chiropractic Antecedents to Chiropractic Health Care from 3000 BC to 1895 • Hippocrates 420 B.C. Known today as the Father of Medicine “Do good or at least no harm” “ Look well to the spine for the cause of disease.” Begins to regard disease as a natural, rather than a super­natural, process – Hippocratic Oath based on his teachings – – – – • The Hippocratic Oath – Both classic and modern versions on BB Antecedents to Chiropractic Antecedents to Chiropractic Health Care from 3000 BC to 1895 • Espoused a ‘natural’ theory of disease causation • Theory of the Four Humors: – – – – Bile Black Bile Yellow Blood Red Phlegm White • Disease lay in the imbalance of these natural humors (fluids) of a person’s internal Hippocrates Hippocrates • FATHER OF MODERN MEDICINE • “Do good or at least do no harm.” • “Look well to the spine for the cause of disease.” • Hippocratic Oath • The Four Humors Antecedents to Chiropractic Antecedents to Chiropractic Health Care from 3000 BC to 1895 • Galen (~129 – 200 A.D.) – – – Greek physician who refined Hippocrates’ ideas. Wrote around 300 works. Viewed the body as 3 connected systems: • • • Brain and nerves – sensation and thought Heart and arteries – life­giving energy Liver and veins – nutrition and growth – Became so dogmatized that his work was later rejected for its errors – Recent re­evaluation recognizes its value Galen Galen • Greek physician who refined Hippocrates’ ideas. • Viewed the body as 3 connected systems: • Brain and nerves – sensation and thought • Heart and arteries – life­ giving energy • Liver and veins – nutrition and growth Antecedents to Chiropractic Antecedents to Chiropractic Health Care from 3000 BC to 1895 • Three Major Philosophic Divisions of Medicine/Healing – Allopathy, Homeopathy and Naturopathy • Allopathy: Treatment is “opposite to the disease” That which alleviates the symptom defeats the disease – Mostly pursued empirically – try it and see if it “works” – – Antecedents to Chiropractic Antecedents to Chiropractic Health Care from 3000 BC to 1895 • Naturopathy – Originated by Paracelcus (1493?­1541) • aka Theophrastus Philippus Aureoleus Bombastus Von Hohnheim Advocated natural healing. Main therapy was the use of botanicals Embraced almost every drugless therapy, and rarely criticized any non­allopathic procedure – Developed in the late 1800’s by Benedict Lust, the “BJ Palmer of the Naturopaths” ­ Strauss – – – Paracelcus Paracelcus FATHER OF NATUROPATHY “He lived like a pig, looked like a coachman and took He most pleasure in company of loosest and lowest mob… all his writings seem to have been written while during intoxication.” intoxication.” Antecedents to Chiropractic Antecedents to Chiropractic Health Care from 3000 BC to 1895 • Homeopathy Originator: Samuel Hahnemann M.D. Treatment is the same as the disease; “Similia similibus curantur” ( Like cures like) – That which produces the symptom in a healthy person will exacerbate the symptom in the sick patient and help the body defeat the disease – Based on the theory of “infinite dilution” (the homeopathic tincture) until only the “healing essence” remains – – Samuel Christian Hahneman Samuel Christian Hahneman FATHER OF HOMEOPATHY “Simili similibus curanture” Antecedents to Chiropractic Antecedents to Chiropractic Health Care from 3000 BC to 1895 • Franz Mesmer ­ Father of Magnetic Healing – German born scientist – Practiced in Vienna in the late 1700’s • Best known for his theory of “animal attraction” – Planetary attraction influenced health by affecting “invisible fluids” found in the human body and throughout nature • He induced a trance and claimed that, with the help of magnets, he could “restore the flow” of these fluids • Eventually used his hands instead of magnets Franz Anton Mesmer Franz Anton Mesmer Father of Magnetic Healing CHARLES POYSON PAUL CASTER D.D. PALMER Antecedents to Chiropractic Antecedents to Chiropractic Health Care from 3000 BC to 1895 • Franz Anton Mesmer – 1778 ­ Scientific inquisition got him kicked out of Austria. He moved to Paris – 1784 – Ousted from Paris by King Louis XVI who appointed a panel, including Ben Franklin, to investigate his claims, which he ultimately was unable to support. – His ability to create a “trance” became “mesmerism” and was the predecessor of hypnotism. Antecedents to Chiropractic Antecedents to Chiropractic Health Care from 3000 BC to 1895 • Magnetic Healing – – Introduced into US by Charles Poyson in 1830’s Paul Caster studied under Poyson and brought it to the Midwest, where DD learns magnetic healing from J. S. Caster, Paul Caster’s son • DD Palmer was practicing as a magnetic healer at the time he discovered chiropractic Antecedents to Chiropractic Antecedents to Chiropractic Health Care from 3000 BC to 1895 • Health Care in America in the late 1800’s • There were three ways to learn and practice: – – – European Professional Medicine European Folk Medicine Native American Practice • European Professional Medicine – – – Centered in Germany Few of these came over to America Few went back to England/Germany to train Antecedents to Chiropractic Antecedents to Chiropractic Health Care from 3000 BC to 1895 – Centered on the East Coast and the larger cities – Typical 1800’s medical school curriculum: • 2 semesters of classes (1 year) • Followed by 3 year apprenticeship • European Folk Medicine – – Dominant form of medical care used in colonies Usually training was through apprenticeships • Native American Medicine – Learned from the Indians – Many herbal remedies from native plants DD Palmer – the Early Years DD Palmer – the Early Years • 1823 – Thomas Palmer (DD Palmer’s father) – Born in Prince Edward Province, Canada – He was a grocer and a teacher in Toronto • 1830’s – Charles Poyson brings magnetic healing to US • Treating 500­700 patients daily • 1845 ­ Daniel David (D.D.) Palmer – Born March 7, 1845 in Port Perry, Canada • Just west of Toronto (Canada’s western frontier) • Siblings: Thomas (TJ), Bart, Lucinda, Hanna, Catharine DD Palmer – the Early Years DD Palmer – the Early Years • 1847 – AMA is founded • 1856 – DD (11) into his high school studies – – – – – Father’s business goes belly up He and TJ (17) go to work in a stave/match factory Help support the family in their move to America Bad timing as America is preparing for Civil War DD & TJ stay in Canada. • 1861 – 1865 Civil War DD Palmer – the Early Years DD Palmer – the Early Years Start here 7/21/09 • 1865 – DD ends up in Davenport, IA – Becomes a grocer (learned from father), makes $$ • 1866 – DD becomes a schoolmaster – Making $20/month running “1 room schoolhouse” • 1867 – 1870 – DD is teaching in various towns in eastern Iowa – He usually has charge of more than 50 student DD Palmer – the Early Years DD Palmer – the Early Years • 1871 – January 20, 1871 ­ marries Abba Lord – First of DD’s five (5) wives – November, 1871 ­ DD/Abba buy “Sweet Home” • 10 acres of farm land for $10/acre – DD experiments w/ bee keeping/fruit farming • 1872 – Abba Palmer gone from DD’s life – Marriage lasted 1½ years – Unclear records indicate a divorce • 1873 – DD marries Lovenia Landers – She brings a son (Frank) from a previous marriage DD Palmer – the Early Years DD Palmer – the Early Years • 1874 – Osteopathy founded by A.T. Still • 1875 – DD continues raising bees and fruit – Finally meets with success with his bees • 1876 – May Palmer is born to DD & Lovenia • 1880 – Jesse Palmer is born to DD & Lovenia – Bees doing poorly but fruit nursery starts to succeed – He develops “Sweet Home” thorn­less raspberries • 1881 – Bee enterprise collapses – From disease/harsh weather 00 DD Palmer – the Early Years DD Palmer – the Early Years • 1882 – DD moves to What Cheer, Iowa – DD runs a grocery store • Sells produce/goldfish • Enemies later call DD “uneducated fishmonger” • September 10, 1882 – BJ Palmer is born • • • Actually named Joshua Bartlett at birth BJ names himself BJ at age 20 years old BJ claims September 10, 1881 as his birth date – To be older than Mabel Heath? DD Palmer – the Early Years DD Palmer – the Early Years • Spiritualism – While in What Cheer, DD pursues spiritualism • Belief in contacting the spirit world using mediums – Reads many esoteric works, especially The Moral Aphorisms and Terseological Teachings of Confucius, the Sapient Chinese Philosopher (translated 1870) • Leads to DD’s interest in magnetic healing – Reads the works of Dr. Paul Caster • Very successful magnetic healer in Ottumwa, Iowa DD Palmer – the Early Years DD Palmer – the Early Years • 1884 – November 20, 1884 ­ Lovenia dies – Cause is unknown – Leaves Frank (11), May (8), Jesse (6), and Bart (2) • 1885 – DD (40) marries Martha Henning – A woman of 26, 14 years his junior • Six mo. after Lovenia dies, children need a mother (?) – She also “disappears” from the historical record • 1886 – DD becomes a magnetic healer – – Moves to Burlington Advertises: “D.D. Palmer, Vital Healer” DD Palmer – the Early Years DD Palmer – the Early Years • 1887 – DD moves to Davenport – Begins practice at 408½ Jefferson St. • Right on the Mississippi River riverfront – Later moves to the corner of 2nd and Brady St. • Advertises in the Davenport City Directory: D.D. Palmer Cures without Medicine Ryan Block Building Publisher of The Educator DD Palmer – the Early Years DD Palmer – the Early Years • 11/6/1888 – DD marries Villa Amanda Thomas – 39 year old widow from Rock Island, Il (DD is 43) – Helps manage DD’s magnetic healing practice • • • Office hours: 1:00 – 6:00 pm daily Very successful (seeing 90 – 100 patients/day) Income: $3,000 ­ $4,000/yr (Hotel room: $200/night) • 1892 – A. T. Still establishes American School of Osteopathy – Kirksville, MO, just down the Mississippi River DD Palmer – the Early Years DD Palmer – the Early Years • Still’s Original Theory of Osteopathy – Brain was an “inborn drug store capable of producing all the natural medicines necessary for the restoration of health” – Rule of the Artery: Proper fluid flow necessary to remove tissue toxins, maintain health – Osteopathic Manipulative Therapy (OMT) intended to “reestablish normal arterial blood flow to, and lymphatic/venous drainage from, the body’s tissues to maintain good circulation from brain to all parts of the body to heal and maintain THE CRACK HEARD THE CRACK HEARD ROUND THE WORLD The Crack Heard Round the World The Crack Heard Round the World 1895 – DD called himself the “Discoverer of Chiropractic” The culmination of years of study in many fields. He was not asking why two men under similar circumstances get different diseases Actually looking for a unified reason why one person gets ill and another doesn’t (panacea concept) Reasons through this deductively (disapproved of the scientific method of the time) Answer doesn’t really come until later, under BJ The Crack Heard Round the World The Crack Heard Round the World September 18, 1895 DD described the first adjustment in The Chiropractor’s Adjuster (1914) “I held pressure on the bump, this did not work so I whacked it, and two minutes later, Harvey could hear a watch ticking a foot and a half from his ear.” Lillard had been deaf for 17 years Quad City Times reports it (many years later) as the “crack heard round the world” Shortly after DD gave a second adjustment to treat a patient with a heart problem (Meric system?) Well. . . That’s my story. Well. . . That’s my story. Harvey Harvey Lillard The first person to receive a specific spinal adjustment for the correction of the cause of dis­ease Mrs. Valdeenia Simmons Mrs. Valdeenia Simmons But Which Vertebra Was it? But Which Vertebra Was it? DD originally claimed he had adjusted a mid­cervical vertebra, perhaps C4 In the early 1900s, DD came under strong medical censure for manipulating the neck In The Chiropractor’s Adjuster (1914), DD says something gave way in Harvey Lillard’s back” Carver described it as “fourth thoracic” BJ, who had just turned 13 in 1895, claimed it was axis (C2) during his HIO Later on… Later on… The Crack Heard Round the World The Crack Heard Round the World Had DD found the Magic Bullet? During this time everyone was looking for the “panacea” – the one thing that caused all illnesses As a magnetic healer, DD had patients with many problems/conditions in his practice As he tries his “spinal adjustments,” begins to notice that other conditions begin to respond DD became very secretive about his newfound “panacea” fearing that it would be “stolen” Nov. 8, 1895 – Roentgen discovers x­rays The Crack Heard Round the World The Crack Heard Round the World January 14, 1896 – Chiropractic is christened DD wants a Greek name for his discovery Reverend Samuel Weed (well­versed in Greek and Hebrew) coins the term “chiropractic” Greek: cheir = hand, praktos = practice (done by hand) First offered chirocathartister (to purify by hand) Weed was a Civil War vet and DD’s patient DD treated his daughter “magnetically” for broken ankle(!) She encouraged Weed to see DD for his Civil War ailments Samuel Weed Samuel Weed Cheir = hand Praktos = done by The Crack Heard Round the World The Crack Heard Round the World 1897 – Chiropractic begins to grow DD quits magnetic healing, dedicates his practice to exploring his new discovery Only doing adjustments at this point Gives up his “tooth charm” for his new profession Treatments take about 30 seconds Adjustments on the “Nose­breaker” Cost $10 for 1st week, $5 for additional weeks Reports of 90+ patients waiting for him to open at 1:00 p.m. every day – they had to take numbers The Nose­breaker The Nose­breaker The Crack Heard Round the World The Crack Heard Round the World 1897 – Chiropractic “comes out” At first, DD tries to keep the new discovery within the family; makes reference to the “Palmer Dynasty” In 1897, DD is in a train accident, but escapes injury He realizes that if he dies, chiropractic dies with him DD “adjusts” a crippled man for a displaced femur on the Rock Island Ferry, who then walks off the boat DD starts “racing up and down the streets and hills of Davenport, wearing a black hat of distinctive western design” in a distinctive surrey, pulled by Nip and Tuck Nip and Tuck Nip and Tuck The Crack Heard Round the World The Crack Heard Round the World 1898 – DD accepts students into chiropractic Establishes Dr. Palmer’s Chiropractic School and Cure on the 4th floor of the Ryan Building at the corner of Brady and Second in Davenport Iowa First class: Leroy Baker (1st student) William A. Seeley, MD (1st graduate) A. P. Davis, MD, DO (1st mixer) Fee: $500 for 6­month course Name evolves rapidly PSC Names PSC Names Dr. Palmer’s Magnetic Cure and Infirmary Dr. Palmer’s Chiropractic School and Cure Dr. Palmer’s Chiropractic School and Infirmary Palmer’s School of Chiropractic Palmer School of Chiropractic (Good Ol’ PSC) The Ryan Block The Ryan Block ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/21/2011 for the course CPAP 1605 taught by Professor Brianflannery during the Fall '10 term at Life Chiropractic College West.

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