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Unformatted text preview: BJ PALMER, DC, PhC BJ PALMER, DC, PhC The Developer of Chiropractic • Born: September 10, 1882 • Birth certificate: Joshua Bartlett Palmer (Bart) • Mother: Lovenia Landers Palmer • Early formal education – Attends school through 7th grade (age 12) – Eventually expelled for “being too aggressive, asking lots of questions, bringing mice to school, playing pranks, being considered a troublemaker and not getting vaccinated” B.J. Palmer Developer of Chiropractic 1882-1961 Bart Palmer Bart Palmer • BJ recollected his childhood as abusive – Relationship w/ DD was “tumultuous” (to say the least) – Claimed that DD hit him on the back with a bat, causing several lumbar fractures (corporal discipline!) • BJ later blames his bladder cancer on this incident – BJ recollected that when DD was angry with him, DD would make him “sleep in the street” (in the alley behind their house) The Palmers- 1890 Bart Palmer Bart Palmer • But he also attributed his entrepreneurial spirit, self­confidence and showmanship to his formative experiences – As a child, Bart pumped the pipe organ in the First Methodist Church for 5¢/hour • One of the reasons there always was an organist at Lyceum, and on his radio broadcasts – He worked as an errand boy/clerk in the H. A. St. Onge Department Store (bottom floor of the Ryan Building at 2nd and Brady Streets) • Store’s owners later studied chiropractic under BJ Bart Palmer Bart Palmer • As a teenager, Bart works as an assistant to a mesmerist/magician in a vaudeville­type show – He attributes his lifelong theatrical flare and ability to handle audiences to this experience – Later BJ enlists an “army” of theater and circus performers to spread the word about chiropractic • Bart was an admirer of PT Barnum (1810­1891) of Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Circus fame – From this, BJ develops an enduring love for the circus – Retired to Sarasota, FL to be near the winter home of the RB/B&B Circus in Venice, FL Young Mr. Palmer returned to his parent's home in Davenport, Iowa for Christmas, 1900. It was a vacation from his job as an hypnotic subject with "Professor" Herbert L. Flint's travelling vaudeville show (Keating, 1997, p. 15). Bart Becomes BJ Bart Becomes BJ • By the age of nineteen (1902) Bart graduates from, and takes over the leadership of, the Palmer Chiropractic School and Infirmary – He changes his name to BJ • Says BJ stands for the “Big Job” he is taking on – The school is $8,000 in debt • BJ relies on his good community reputation to • • borrow $8,000 to pull school out of debt Creditors do not want DD involved anymore BJ pays back debt within two years BJ Develops PSC and Chiropractic BJ Develops PSC and Chiropractic • When BJ takes over PSC, main chiropractic technique is “hit the high spots” – – – Palpation for displaced SPs/TPs (lumps and bumps) Adjustment = reduction of the lumps/bumps Full­spine technique (C1­L5, excluding sacrum/ilium) • BJ is “satisfied with the technique that had been • • handed down to me.” He will “research the science and philosophy” He seeks an “objective specificity” relative to a scientific approach Technique Progress at PSC Technique Progress at PSC • 1903/04 – BJ begins osteological collection – To validate osseous palpation, he begins to collect spines from everywhere he can – Discovers and begins to document the wide range of variations in SPs and TPs – Begins to question the accuracy and therefore the clinical validity of bony palpation alone Technique Progress at PSC Technique Progress at PSC • Meanwhile F.M. Pottenger, MD graduates – Though trained first as an MD, he becomes very chiropractically oriented – BJ credits Pottenger with the concept that: “If DCs are trying to correct organic dysfunction which is a result of nerve pressure, then if the nerve pathways were known, the DC could address the nerve that leads to the malfunctioning organ” Technique Progress at PSC Technique Progress at PSC • Pottenger convinces BJ that “nerve pathways are • less variable than SPs or TPs” This leads to analysis based on nerve tracing – This will eventually come to be called “Neuromeric Tracing” a.k.a. the Meric System – Initially BJ strongly supports this concept • Nerve tracing leads many chiropractors to conclude that to find subluxation, you need to diagnose the patient’s “problem” – BJ rejects this for both philosophical/political reasons Nerve Tracing Nerve Tracing • Tracing “ hot • nerve fibers” from the periphery to the spinal column to locate subluxation Will lead to heat­ based instruments and “break” analysis Technique Progress at PSC Technique Progress at PSC • Pottenger also describes “Pottenger’s Saucer” – Palpable/sometimes visible “dorsal dimple” present over anteriorly displaced thoracic vertebra – Leads to the (controversial) “anterior thoracic move” – During this stage of chiropractic development, “audibles” are considered very important to reassure the patient that something is “being done” – Therefore, the typically very noisy anterior thoracic move is widely accepted and utilized – Controversy: impossibility of “anterior displacement” PSC Curriculum Evolves PSC Curriculum Evolves • PSC curriculum now includes: – Anatomy – Symptomatology – Adjusting technique • If you completed the: – 8 month program → Chiropractor – 12 month program → Doctor of Chiropractic (DC) – 12 month program with GPA of 90%+ → DC, PhC • Classes held daily from 7:00am – 9:30pm – – Students attended 100% of classes – no excuses Lunch: 12 ­ 1, Dinner: 4 ­ 6, Clinic: 6 ­ 9 Dissention Among the Ranks Dissention Among the Ranks • PSC faculty member John Howard, ’05 – Has dispute w/ BJ over value of human dissection – Leaves PSC and organizes National School of Chiropractic, in Davenport – Began tradition of “rational chiropractic” – Uses the “Howard System” which combine elements of Naturopathy and manipulation – Eventually sells NCC to Wm. C. Schulze, MD in 1936 • NCC teaches electrical modalities/naturopathy • Becomes PSC/PCC’s educational/political nemesis John Howard & William Schulze John Howard & William Schulze Rational Chiropractic Rational Chiropractic National School National School of Chiropractic • The Ryan Building at Second and Brady, Davenport, IA • “Déjà vu all over again.” • 10/24/06 Chiropractic Profession Under Chiropractic Profession Under BJ • December, 1906 – BJ establishes the Universal Chiropractors Association (UCA) – Tom Morris/Fred Hartwell serve as counsel – UCA’s first action is to condemn the “mixer policies” of the Langworthys’ ACA • UCA’s primary mission – to protect chiropractic practitioners from legal attack – Defends chiropractors (PSC grads) mostly under the “Drugless Practitioner” laws – Chiropractic Practice Acts don’t exist yet Hartwell, BJ and Morris Hartwell, BJ and Morris lead the UCA Educational Rivalry Heats Up Educational Rivalry Heats Up • 1907 – National moves to Chicago – National arranges w/ Cook County Hospital to allow their students to attend surgical procedures – Arrangement ends in 1924 with complaints about the student’s “excessive zealousness” • Shouting from the balcony of the surgical amphitheater “ Have you tried chiropractic?” – National teaches obstetrics, gynecology, proctology, coagulation of the tonsils and diathermy The Legal Battle Begins in Earnest The Legal Battle Begins in Earnest • 1907 – The First Chiropractic Victory – Shegataro Morikubo, PSC ’01 arrested in Lacrosse, WI for “practicing medicine without a license” – Defended by UCA council Tom Morris and BJ • They convinces jury that chiropractic is “separate and distinct” from medicine Use Langworthy’s Modernized Chiropractic(!) • – Defense provides precedent for future cases • Very important result for the fledgling profession Shegataro Shegataro Morikubo • PSC ’01 • BJ and Morris • • defend (UCA) 1st chiropractic victory Establishes “separate and distinct” defense BJ Develops Chiropractic BJ Develops Chiropractic Radiography • 1909 – BJ buys an x­ray machine • BJ has difficulty obtaining an x­ray machine – Initially MDs seek exclusive rights to x­ray technology for themselves – Legislation restricting DCs from using x­rays had already been introduced in several states – Most DCs couldn’t get x­ray machines for private practices until the 1930s BJ Develops Chiropractic BJ Develops Chiropractic Radiography • Once obtained, he puts it into his private office • Immediately begins to take spinographs – Name coined by BJ, who took some of the first – Medical profession calls them roentgenographs • Initially potential for damage is not recognized – Spinographs (trunk x­rays) harder to expose than “broken bone” (usually extremity) x­rays – Extensive trial and error needed to perfect technique – Leads to opinion that DCs “take too many x­rays” Old X­ray machine Old X­ray machine BJ Develops Chiropractic BJ Develops Chiropractic Radiography • X­ray still uses “glass plate negatives” (not film) – – – Glass coated with emulsion, prepared on location BJ keeps all the plates in the library Very expensive; costs BJ “big bucks” to do this • Low KV settings (low voltage transformers) lead to long exposure times (high mas) – Full spine x­rays took 30 minutes • Exposures often turned subject pink from IR (ouch!) – Optimum use was for small parts (e.g. cervicals) PSC Thriving Under BJ Palmer PSC Thriving Under BJ Palmer • • • 1909 Palmer acquires PSC’s first x­ray machine McManus invents/patents multidirectional flexion distraction table for the osteopathic profession – Cox will modify this table in ‘60s for DCs • Meric System is developed further by James Wishhart, taught at PSC • Coccyx adjusted for the first time James James Wishart Chiropractic Radiography Chiropractic Radiography • 1910 – Spinography introduced into curriculum – Typical early view: A­P F/S with a rare lateral • BJ declares “Those who do not use x­rays are not good DCs” – Promptly loses half his supporters/students over the x­ray issue (Loban et. al. defect → UCC at this time) • BJ begins to concentrate on the upper cervical spine, • possibly because it is an area of the spine that is readily seen on x­ray(?) By 1916, PSC issuing a “radiology diploma” along with its DC diploma Early F/S X­ray Early F/S X­ray • A rare early full • spine lateral spinograph Long exposures, besides requiring extreme “patience from the patients”, did tissue damage and produced poor quality films Early Spinography Class ­ PSC Early Spinography Class ­ PSC A New Profession Emerges A New Profession Emerges • 1910 – NFC (National Federation of Chiropractors) is formed by NC Ross, DC – To pursue military recognition for DC’s – Will be renamed as 3rd ACA in 1917 – Also Ross Chiropractic College in Fort Wayne, IN • 1910­1924 – Spinographs are being taken mainly in the recumbent position Supine X­rays Supine X­rays • Recumbent x­ rays being taken at the Palmer School of Chiropractic Clinic Controversies Abound Controversies Abound • BJ becomes chiropractic’s ultimate promoter – Establishes Fountainhead News, BJ/PSC mouthpiece – Coins the term dis­ease due to cord compression theory • BJ coins the term spinograph in February – Introduces x­ray to the profession at UCA convention – Starts phasing x­ray into PSC curriculum X­Rays Introduced at PSC X­Rays Introduced at PSC • BJ likes x­rays for many reasons: – – – BJ believes they will show subluxation to the world BJ believes that palpation is too inaccurate BJ believes they can show pathologies • Students are told then (as today) that x­rays reveal many conditions, such as dislocations and fractures, which are “not for the chiropractor, but for the surgeon” • First x­ray classes are optional (experimental) – Eventually become mandatory in PSC curriculum – Eventually all schools will have x­ray departments • Creates another divisive controversy (of course) Controversies Abound Controversies Abound • 1910 – Universal Chiropractic College • Joy Loban “defects” and starts UCC “just down the hill” at 528­530 Brady St. – Trusted PSC faculty member/BJ’S personal friend – Author of several early Green Books (philosophy) • Students stood up in BJ’s philosophy class and marched down Brady Street to the UCC – The split: Partly over philosophy, partly over x­ray • DD thinks x­rays will cause spinal caries/burns – Supports Loban/UCC over BJ/PSC in this controversy Controversies Abound Controversies Abound • Loban breaks w/ BJ/PSC over use of x­ rays in chiropractic, but soon gets over it – Eventually develops the use of a full spine x­ ray machine at UCC • Writes The Technique and Practice of Chiropractic (1912) • Writes Textbook of Neurology (1929) • Founds the ICA, as an alternative to BJ’s Pure Straight and Unadulterated (PSU) Joy Loban Joy Loban Controversies Abound Controversies Abound • Three chiropractic colleges all operating in Davenport, IA – Palmer School of Chiropractic – Universal Chiropractic College – Davenport School of Chiropractic • Rival college recruiters would go down to the depot and steal (misdirect) new PSC students arriving at the Davenport Train Depot Davenport Train Station Davenport Train Station Controversies Abound Controversies Abound • 2nd ACA forms, represents broad­scope “mixers” AP Davis, DO, MD, DC, ND Joe Shelby Riley ,MD, PhD, DO, DC, ND George D. Gillespie, MD, DC, ND Charles A. Cale, ND, DC, founder of LACC Frederick Collins, DO, DC, founder of Mecca Chiropractic College in NJ – Sterling Cooley, DC, who later reorganized ACA into NCA in 1930’s – – – – – • Fixation theory introduced by Harry Reeves, DC The Flexner Report The Flexner Report • 1910 – Flexner Report is published Medical Education in the United States and Canada Funded by the Carnegie Foundation Flexner essentially condemns the state of medical education in America as “deplorable and wretched” – Only allopathic schools should get federal approval – CME should be the only medical accrediting agency – – – • Abraham Flexner is an educator, an AMA consultant on education – He is not a medical doctor The Flexner Report The Flexner Report • The Flexner Report: – Recommends that proprietary and sectarian schools be denied CME accreditation – Suggests that CME control accredited schools by threatening to take accreditation status away unless the schools followed the edicts of the AMA – Convinces the federal government that there is not a shortage of MDs – Lobbies against any federal support of medical education The Flexner Report –Wider Effects The Flexner Report –Wider Effects • What was the impact of the report on sectarian and proprietary schools? – Any schools (e.g. homeopathic schools, for­ profit schools) that did not or could not (due to philosophic reasons) comply with AMA’s demands were denied accreditation – By 1920, 76 institutions have been shut down – Last homeopathic medical school closes in 1924 – By 1945, only 5 states have Homeopathic Boards The Flexner Report –Wider Effects The Flexner Report –Wider Effects • What happened to the chiropractic/ osteopathic schools? – When the report “hit the scene” in 1910, both osteopath/chiropractic were growing – Flexner’s opinion of chiropractic/tors: “Chiropractors and mechanotherapists are no more than unconscionable quacks.” – Flexner suggested that these two “systems of quackery” be eliminated entirely The Flexner Report –Wider Effects The Flexner Report –Wider Effects • The published “acceptable” reasons for the closing of chiropractic colleges were: – Few prerequisites – Inadequate medical training – DCs were motivated by money, not compassion for patients – DC students didn’t have access to human cadavers, therefore, they had little/no dissection experience – Vertebral subluxations, as chiropractors understood them, didn’t exist The Flexner Report –Wider Effects The Flexner Report –Wider Effects • However, chiropractic is recognized as a separate • • healing art by the time the CME receives federal approval as the only medical accrediting body; therefore, chiropractic did not fall under its jurisdiction. Chiropractic was the brunt of literally hundreds of anti­ chiropractic editorials after the Flexner Report came out (between 1915 and 1925) Morris Fishbein, MD (AMA president 1924­1949) starts branding chiropractors as “quacks” ...
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