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ANAT 1615 Exam 1 Notes (Dr. Hassani)

ANAT 1615 Exam 1 Notes (Dr. Hassani) - Gross Anatomy Exam 1...

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Gross Anatomy Exam 1 Lecture Notes Spinal Cord Starts at C1 Ends at L1-L2 (Inferior to L1 – Superior to L2) Length of Spinal cord = 42 – 45 cm o Dorsal Horn  Sensory  Afferent o Ventral Horn  Motor  Efferent o White matter  myelinated axons o Grey matter  unmyelinated axons Cell bodies present o Dorsal Root Ganglion – Collection of cell bodies outside the CNS o Mixed Spinal Nerve – sensory & motor Rootlets of both Dorsal & Ventral Horns o Dorsal Rami Smaller Posterior Skin Fascia
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Synovial Joint Deep muscles of the back o Ventral Rami Larger Anterior Skin Fascia Trunk Lower Limb Upper Limb Plexuses Plexuses – All come from the Ventral Rami o Cervical : C1-C5 o Brachial : C5-T1 o Intercostal : T1-T11 o Subcostal : T12 o Lumbar : L1-L4 o Sacral : L4-S4 o Coccygeal : S5-Co1 CNS  Brain and Spinal Cord PNS  Cranial nerves and Spinal nerves o (Nerve – anything exiting the brain or spinal cord) Cranial Nerves: 12 Total o Sensory o Motor o Mixed Spinal Nerves – 31 Pairs o Cervical : C1-C8 Superior to Vertebra 8 pairs o Thoracic : T1-T12 Inferior to Vertebra 12 pairs o Lumbar : L1-L5 Inferior to Vertebra 5 pairs o Sacral : S1-S5 Inferior to Vertebra 5 pairs o Coccyx : Co1-Co5 Inferior to Vertebra 1 pair Conus Medullaris – Spinal cord ends around L1-L2 o Cauda Equina Nerves are long from lumbar and sacrum down Looks like “horse hair” Meninges – 3 Membranes o Dura Mater – Outermost – Thickest o Arachnoid mater – Avascular Subarachnoid Space aka “Leptomeningean” Contains Cerebral Spinal Fluid “CSF” o Pia mater – Covering spinal cord – thin and transparent Denticulate Ligaments – Connecting Dura Mater/Arachnoid and Pia Epidural Subdural
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Filum Terminale – Non-neural tissue o Attaches on posterior side of coccyx o Serves as an anchor for the inferior end of the spinal cord and the spinal meninges o Two Divisions Internum Externum o Two Ends Proximal End: Pial Part Distal End: Dural part o Sacral Hiatus has a dural part Coccygeal Ligament – present at the end of the filum terminale o The spinal cord is suspended in the dural sac by the filum terminale and the denticulate lig- aments Denticulate Ligament : o Hold spinal cord in place o Runs from Pia to the Sub Dura o C1 to T12/L1 o 20-22 sawtooth-like processes Dura Mater o Epidural – I.V.V.P. and epidural fat Intra vertebral venous plexus o Subdural Sac – protects the nerves and spinal cord Stops around L5 Epineurium – Spinal nerve sheaths Back Muscles: Extrinsics -- Superficial Back Musculature Trapezius Origin: 1. external occipital protuberance 2. medial 1/3 of the superior nuchal line 3. ligamentum nuchae 4. spinous processes of C7-T12 Insertion: 5. posterior, lateral 1/3 of clavicle 6. acromion of scapula 7. superior spine of scapula Action:
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8. Superior Fibers: Elevates scapula 9. Middle Fibers: Adduct scapula 10.
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