ANAT 1615 Upper Extremity Notes

ANAT 1615 Upper Extremity Notes - UPPER EXTREMITY 1 2 3 4 5...

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UPPER EXTREMITY: 1.) Pectoral Girdle (Shoulder): made up of 2 clavicles and 2 scapulas 2.) Arm (Brachium): humerus 3.) Forearm (Antebrachium): ulna and radius 4.) Wrist (Carpal): 8 carpal bones arranged in 2 rows (SLTPTTCH) 5.) Hand: metacarpals and phalanges (14 in each hand) Bones of the Pectoral Girdle (Shoulder) CLAVICLE - Connects upper limb to trunk - Gives appearance of the letter “S” - Easily observed and operable - 2 attachments: o Acromial end attaches to the scapula (acromioclavicular joint) o Sternal end attaches to the manubrium of the sternum (sternoclavicular joint) - Serves as a rigid support from which scapula and limbs are suspended and can have maximum freedom of motion - Considered a long bone but is NOT formed by endochondral ossification – only long bone formed by intramembranous ossification - Ossification begins in 5 th week of fetal development and is not complete until 22 years - Transmits shocks from upper limb to axial skeleton - Affords protection to neurovascular bundle supplying the upper limb - Right clavicle is stronger and shorter than left clavicle - Mechanism of Injury: o One of the most frequently fractured bones o Most often occur when people fall forward with outstretched hand and cause facture near the middle of the clavicle o Weakest part of clavicle is junction of middle and lateral thirds o Fracture: proximal fragment goes up and distal fragment goes down o SCM pulls the proximal end up and the weight and force of the arm pulls the distal end down o Most often fractured in young children because it is not fully ossified o May be fractured during delivery – greenstick fracture SCAPULA - Lies against posterior aspect of rib cage and is shaped like an inverted triangle - Overlies the 2 nd – 7 th ribs - Supraspinous muscle lies within the supraspinous fossa - Acromion : articulates with the acromial end of clavicle and is attached to trapezius, deltoid and acromioclavicular ligament - Coracoid Process : provides attachment for pectoralis minor, coracobrachialis, biceps brachii and coracoacromial ligament o It is poppable o Anterior and superior to the humerus - Glenoid Cavity (fossa) : point of articulation with the humerus o Shallow fossa that houses the glenoid labrum
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- Supra/Infra Glenoid tubercles : provide attachment for the long head of the biceps brachii and for the long head of the triceps brachii - Scapula articulates with the humerus and clavicle - Mechanism of Injury: o Fracture is the result of severe trauma – pedestrian-vehicle accidents o Fractures require little treatment because it is covered on both sides by muscles o Involve protruding subcutaneous acromion Bones of the Arm (Brachium) HUMERUS - Largest bone in the upper limb - Head of the humerus articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula at the glenohumeral joint - Articulates with the radius and ulna at the elbow joint - Head of humerus is covered by hyaline cartilage - Lesser tuberosity : provides point of attachment for subscapularis muscle -
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ANAT 1615 Upper Extremity Notes - UPPER EXTREMITY 1 2 3 4 5...

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