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ANAT 1607 Final Exam Notes - Spinal Anatomy Notes for Final...

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Spinal Anatomy Notes for Final Exam Nervous System of the Spinal Cord Dura mater (outer meningi) covers everything Embryologically, the dura mater arises from mesoderm Arachnoid and Pia mater arise from neural crest cells Pia mater is intimately woven into the superficial part of the nervous system o Follows through all the contours/fissures and over the blood vessels and nerve roots exiting the spinal cord Arachnoid mater covers the outside (closer to the dura mater) o Creates a subarachnoid space Dura mater Tough outer layer Innervated by the recurrent meningeal nerve (does not innervate arachnoid, pia mater, or Z-joints) Begins with the spinal cord at the foramen magnum o Brain stem ends at the foramen magnum o So there is a “transition” area from the foramen magnum to about C1 Has elements of the medulla oblongata (brainstem) and the spinal cord o At this site, you get the crossing over that occurs so that the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body Where the nerves decussate (cross over) Does not connect to the lamina of the vertebrae o Can connect to the pedicles when the nerve roots leave the spinal cord Dural sac (a.k.a. Thecal sac) – refers to the dura mater (according to wikipedia – look up) Ends at S2 Forms a dural root sheath (or dural canal) for each spinal nerve near the IVF o Where the dorsal and ventral roots come together to form the mixed spinal nerve Becomes continuous with epineurium of spinal nerve and periosteum of the pedicle of the vertebrae o Epineurium – outer layer of the nerve (Epi, peri, endo) o This connection holds it into place – not too strong, not too weak Arachnoid mater Thin, delicate, non-vascular membrane Surrounds all the blood vessels. CSF btw arachnoid & pia mater. Arachnoid trabeculae – on its inner surface extends across the subarachnoid space o Connects the arachnoid mater to the pia mater Held against the dura mater by the pressure of the CSF Lumbar cistern – larger spaces (enlargement) of the subarachnoid space o Enlargement of the subarachnoid space between the conus medullaris of spinal cord (about vertebral level L2 ) and inferior end of subarachnoid space and dura mater (about vertebral level S2 ) o Occupied by the posterior and anterior nerve roots constituting the cauda equina, the filum terminale, and CSF Pia mater 1
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Vascular membrane Fuses to the outer layer of glial cells forming a pia-glial membrane It covers all the surfaces of the spinal cord, nerve roots, and blood vessels o Covers the blood vessels that enter the spinal cord Forms the denticulate ligaments o Along the entire length of the spinal cord o Located midway between the entering dorsal roots and the exiting ventral roots o Extends and attaches to the dura mater o The first one attaches to the foramen magnum (only one that attaches to bone!!) o Last one is located around L2 (where the spinal cord stops) Filum Terminalae
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