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TENTATIVE FAIR - Algorithms and heuristics Algorithm...

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TENTATIVE FAIR-GAME SHEET - FINAL EXAM Thinking Geons and "impossible figures" Like the impossible staircase or 3 prong figure; Brain acquires vocabulary of shapes that we go and try and scan in the world Prototype theory of meaning Spreading activation Process by which activation of one concept also activates or primes other concepts that are linked to it; think of words or concepts with links to related concepts Stroop effect and automatization Interference between automatized and deliberate ways of thinking like in numbers and Colors; tendency to read the words instead of saying the color of ink Mental rotation and map image-scanning studies When you see 2 shapes that are the same, rotate 2 in head until they are aligned in space in your mind Change blindness Failure to detect changes in parts of a scene Attentional blink During a brief time after perceiving one stimulus, it is difficult to attend to something else Nature of expertise Even if someone is born with a certain talent, they still need years of hard work to develop expertise
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Unformatted text preview: Algorithms and heuristics Algorithm: mechanical, repetitive procedure for solving a problem or testing hypothesis Heruistic: strategies for simplifying problem, generating satisfactory guess Representativeness heuristic Item that resembles members of category probably belongs to that category; if something looks like a duck and sounds like a duck it must be a duck Base-rate information How common 2 categories are Availability heuristic More easily we can think of members of a category, more common category is; more words start with k than more with k as third letter Overconfidence Believing your estimate is more accurate than it is Confirmation bias Tendency to accept one hypothesis, then look for evidence to support it, instead of considering other possibilities Framing bias and “spin” “spinning” or “scientific catastrophism” when wording of problem leads us to a decision; positive: choose option A to save 200 lives negative: choose option A or 400 ppl will die...
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