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Unformatted text preview: Hip flexibility is the main determinant of the back-saver sit-and-reach test in adolescents PALMA CHILLO N 1 , JOSE CASTRO-PIN ERO 2 , JONATAN R. RUIZ 3 , VI CTOR M. SOTO 1 , ANA CARBONELL-BAEZA 1 , JAVIER DAFOS 1 , GERMA N VICENTE-RODRI GUEZ 4 , MANUEL J. CASTILLO 5 , &amp; FRANCISCO B. ORTEGA 3,5 1 Department of Physical Education and Sport, School of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain, 2 Department of Physical Education, School of Education, University of Ca diz, Puerto Real, Spain 3 Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden, 4 Department of Physiotherapy and Nursing, School of Health and Sport Science, University of Zaragoza, Huesca, Spain and 5 Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Granada, Spain (Accepted 10 January 2010) Abstract Although flexibility field tests are commonly used in research, sport, and school settings, there is no conclusive evidence about what they actually assess. The first aim of this study was to assess the contributions of the main joints involved in the back-saver sit-and-reach test using angular kinematic analysis. The second aim was to measure the inter-method agreement between the back-saver sit-and-reach test and the sit-and-reach test. A total of 138 adolescents (57 females, 81 males) aged 14.5 + 1.7 years performed the back-saver sit-and-reach test and the sit-and-reach test. Hip, lumbar, and thoracic angles were assessed by angular kinematic analysis while the participants were performing the back-saver sit-and-reach test. Stepwise linear regression models and the Bland-Altman method were used. The hip angle independently explained 42% ( P 5 0.001) of the variance in the back-saver sit-and-reach test, the lumbar angle explained an additional 30% ( P 5 0.001) of the variance, and the thoracic angle an additional 4% ( P 5 0.001). The inter-method mean difference between back-saver sit-and-reach (BSSR) and sit-and-reach (SR) measures (BSSR SR) was 0.41 cm ( P 0.21). The results suggest that hip flexibility is the main determinant of the back-saver sit-and-reach test score in adolescents, followed by lumbar flexibility. The back-saver sit-and-reach test can therefore be considered an appropriate and valid test for assessing hip and low-back flexibility in this age group. The back-saver sit-and-reach and sit-and-reach tests provide comparable values. Keywords: Back-saver sit-and-reach test, sit-and-reach test, flexibility, angular kinematic analysis Introduction Physical fitness has been considered a strong marker of health in youth (Ortega, Ruiz, Castillo, &amp; Sjo stro m, 2008b; Ruiz et al., 2009) and flexibility is an important component of physical fitness. Lack of flexibility in childhood and adolescence is associated with a higher risk for low-back pain in later life (Kujala, Salminen, Taimela, Oksanen, &amp; Jaakkola, 1992; Kujala, Taimela, Salminen, &amp; Oksanen, 1994). Flexibility is commonly assessed in physical1994)....
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