Vector_parasitol_lecture_2011

Vector_parasitol_lecture_2011 - Arthropods as Vectors...

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1 influence human history influence demography plague trench fever malaria yellow fever sleeping sickness river blindness Arthropods as Vectors Arthropods as Vectors viruses rickettsia bacteria protozoa nematodes tapeworm flukes Onchocerca Trypanosoma sp. Lyme spirochete Plasmodium oocysts
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2 Modes of transmission of disease agents by arthropods Mechanical Biological house fly Musca domestica J. Butler Mechanical transmission • arthropod carrier • no reproduction • no development
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3 Mechanical transmission. .. bacteria Entamoeba histolytica surra anaplasmosis diarrheic diseases Biological transmission • arthropod carrier • reproduction • development
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4 Categories of biological transmission. .. propagative cyclopropagative cyclodevelopmental transovarial Propagative transmission. .. reproduction* only plague bacillus (flea) yellow fever virus (mosquito) *multiplication in the number of disease agent units
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5 Cyclopropagative transmission. .. reproduction development* Plasmodium spp. T. brucei ssp. Plasmodium sp. *one or more developmental changes in each disease agent unit Cyclodevelopmental transmission. .. development only filaroid worms Loa loa
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6 Transovarial transmission. .. trans-generational parasite in the egg RMSF scrub typhus thrombus in mouse brain capillary caused by R. tsutsugamushi infection Modes of entry/infection: arthropods and arthropod-borne disease agents injection enter feeding site penetrate skin swallow cross mucosal membrane inhale
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7 Zoonotic disease by contact (rabies) by arthropod vector (plague) bacteria rickettsia viruses protozoa disease agents naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and humans Insect internal anatomy open circulatory system hemocoel dorsal heart/pulsatile organs tracheal system salivary glands tubular gut gastric caecae malphigian tubules ventral nerve cord
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8 Insect external anatomy head: feeding and sensory thorax: locomotion abdomen: digestion, reproduction Insect internal anatomy longitudinal section through grasshopper
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9 SIMPLE metamorphosis egg, nymph, adult no pupal stage habitat and food: nymphs = adults cockroach SIMPLE METAMORPHOSIS - Blatella germanica 18
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10 COMPLETE metamorphosis egg, larva, pupa, adult wings internal pupa non-feeding habitat and food: immatures adults mosquito eggs larvae pupae adult Adult insect mouthparts crushing-chewing sponging cutting sponging piercing-sucking 1 piercing-sucking 2
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11 Crushing-chewing mouthparts cockroach solid food vegetarian carnivore omnivore no blood Sponging mouthparts blow fly liquid food salivate defecate aspirate regurgitate no blood blow fly
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