Chapter 4 Notes - Chapter 4 Probability and Statistics...

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1 Chapter 4 Probability and Statistics Figliola and Beasley, (1999) Probability and Statistics Engineering measurements taken repeatedly under seemingly ideal conditions will normally show variability. Measurement system – Resolution – Repeatability Measurement procedure and technique – Repeatability Probability and Statistics Measured variable Temporal variation Spatial variation We want: 1. A single representative value that best characterizes the average of the data set. 2. A measure of the variation in a measured data set.
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2 True Value True value is represented by = most probable estimate of X’ u x = confidence interval at probability P% which is based on estimates of precision and bias error. X X u x ' = ± X Probability Density Function Central Tendency – says that there is one central value about which all other values tend to be scattered. Probability Density – the frequency with which the measured variable takes on a value within a given interval. The region where observations tend to gather is around the central value. Plotting Histograms ± The abscissa is divided in K small intervals between the minimum and maximum values. ± The abscissa will be divided between the maximum and minimum measured values of x into K small intervals. ± Let the number of times, nj, that a measured value assumes a value within an interval defined by x- δ x x < x+ δ x be plotted on the ordinate. ± For small N, K should be chosen so that n j 5 for at least one interval.
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3 Plotting Histograms ± For N>40 ; K=1.87(N-1) 0.40 +1 ± The histogram displays the tendency and density. ± If the y-axis is normalized by dividing n j /N, a frequency distribution results. K=1.87(N-1) 0.40 +1=7 Cell range: min = 0.68 ; max = 1.34 2 δ x = (1.34-0.68)/7 = 0.10 x- δ x x < x+ δ x Cell = 2* δ x = 0.10 Note: total frequency equals 100% Note: total occurrence equals N Probability Density Function P(x) comes from the frequency distribution - Defines the probability that a measured variable might assume a particular value on any given observation, and also provides the central tendency - The shape depends on the variable in consideration and its natural circumstances/processes. - Plot histograms – compare to common distribution and then fit the parameter. - Unifit is a good PC-based distribution fitting software. Px n N Nx jx ( ) lim ( ) / ( ( )) , = →∞ δ 0 2
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4 Infinite Statistics The most common distribution is the normal or Gaussian distribution. This predicts that the distribution will be evenly distributed around the central tendency. (“bell curve”) The operating conditions that are held fixed are length, temperature, pressure, and velocity. Gaussian Distribution ± Pdf for Gaussian: x’= true mean of x ; σ 2 = true variance of x ± To find/predict the probability that a future measurement falls within some interval.
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Chapter 4 Notes - Chapter 4 Probability and Statistics...

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