L17handout - PUBH 7430 Midterm review (Lecture 17) J....

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Unformatted text preview: PUBH 7430 Midterm review (Lecture 17) J. Wolfson Division of Biostatistics University of Minnesota School of Public Health November 1, 2011 Preliminaries: bivariate dependence The correlation coefficient Know the formula: ( X , Y ) = Cov ( X , Y ) p Var ( X ) p Var ( Y ) Intuition: Covariances depend on scale of random variables, correlation gives scaled version of covariance Key properties: [L5, p.6] Indicates strength of linear relationship May be affected by outliers Alternatives: Spearmans , Kendalls Preliminaries: multivariate dependence Notation Outcome vector Y i and Y Mean vectors i and Variance-covariance matrices i and Predictor/covariate vector x ij and matrices X i and X The linear predictor X Exploratory data analysis Wide format and long format for longitudinal data [L3, p. 5] Cluster-invariant vs. cluster-varying covariates [L6, p. 14] Paired data: Two-sample, one-sample, and paired t-test [L3, p. 16] Exploratory data analysis Graphical summaries Spaghetti plots and ways to make them more readable [L4, p. 17] Within-person residuals : Compare longitudinal patterns (trajectories) by eliminating differences in individual variability [L4, p. 20] Within-time residuals : Make cross-sectional comparisons by eliminating time trends [L4, p. 22] Exploratory data analysis Smoothers Basic goal: Estimate the mean response curve non-parametrically Kernel smoothers: [L4, p. 27] Kernel determines how to average observations Bandwidth determines how much influence nearby vs....
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L17handout - PUBH 7430 Midterm review (Lecture 17) J....

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