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310-26 - CH 310 N LECTURE 26 Textbook Assignment Chapter...

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CH 310 N LECTURE 26 Textbook Assignment: Chapter 26-Lipids Homework (for credit): HW 9 Today’s Topics: Lipids-structure; classification Notice & Announcements: XM3: Posted Lipids
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Lipids include: Øtriglycerides, phospholipids, prostaglandins, prostacyclins, and fat-soluble vitamins Øcholesterol, steroid hormones, and bile acids Triglycerides – example: a triglyceride derived from one molecule each of palmitic acid, oleic acid, and stearic acid, the three most abundant fatty acids in the biological world
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Natural soaps are prepared by boiling lard or other animal fat with NaOH, in a reaction called saponification (Latin, sapo , soap) Sodium soaps 1,2,3-Propanetriol (Glycerol; Glycerin) A triglyceride (a triester of glycerol) + saponification + CH CH 2 OCR CH 2 OCR CHOH CH 2 OH CH 2 OH RCO 3 NaOH 3 RCO - Na + O O O O Soaps & Detergents Soaps clean by acting as emulsifying agents – their long hydrophobic hydrocarbon chains are insoluble in water and tend to cluster in such a way as to minimize their contact with water – their polar hydrophilic carboxylate groups, on the other hand, tend to remain in contact with the surrounding water molecules – driven by these two forces, soap molecules spontaneously cluster into micelles Soaps & Detergents
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– a soap micelle: nonpolar (hydrophobic) hydrocarbon chains cluster in the inside and polar (hydrophilic) carboxylate groups lie on the surface micelle: a spherical arrangement of organic molecules in water clustered so that their hydrophobic parts are buried inside the sphere and their hydrophilic parts are on the surface of the sphere and in contact with water – when soap is mixed with water-insoluble grease, oil, and fats, the nonpolar parts of the soap micelles “dissolve” these nonpolar dirt molecules and they are carried away in the polar wash water Soaps & Detergents
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