Chapter 1
Data Collection
1.1
Introduction to the Practice of Statistics
1.
Statistics is the science of collecting, organizing, summarizing and analyzing information
in order to answer questions or draw conclusions.
The process of statistics is:
(1) Identify the research objective.
(2) Collect the information needed to answer the questions posed in part (1).
(3) Organize and summarize the information.
(4) Draw conclusions form the information.
2.
The population is the group to be studied as defined by the research objective.
A sample is
any subset of the population.
3.
information
4.
individual
5.
Descriptive; inferential
6.
An experiment is double blind if neither the researcher who is administering the treatment,
nor the subject who is receiving the treatment is aware of which treatment the subject is
receiving.
7.
An experimental group usually receives some sort of experimental drug or treatment, while
the control group receives a placebo or a treatment whose effect on the response variable is
known.
8.
Placebos are innocuous treatments such as sugar tablets.
They are needed so that the
treatments each group receives appear to be the same.
9.
Variables
10.
A qualitative variable classifies individuals based on some attribute or characteristic.
Some examples are gender, zip codes, class (freshman, sophomore, etc.) and ethnicity.
A
quantitative variable is a numerical variable on which arithmetic operations can be sensibly
performed.
Some examples are temperature, height, blood pressure, and life expectancy.
11.
A discrete variable is a quantitative variable that has a finite or countable number of
possible values.
Continuous variables are also quantitative variables, but there are an
infinite number of possible values that are not countable.
12.
True
13.
The process of statistic is to (1) identify the research objective, (2) collect the information
needed to answer the questions posed in (1), (3) organize and summarize the information,
and (4) draw conclusions from the information.
1

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