chapter2 - Chapter 2 Organizing and Summarizing Data 2.1...

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24 Chapter 2 Organizing and Summarizing Data 2.1 Organizing Qualitative Data 1. Raw data are the data as originally collected, before they have been organized or coded. 2. number (or count); proportion (or percent) 3. It is a good idea to add up the frequencies in a frequency distribution as a check to see if you missed data or possibly counted the same data more than once. If the total of the frequencies does not equal the total number of data values, the distribution should be done again. 4. The relative frequencies should add to 1 (though deviations may occur due to rounding error). 5. A Pareto chart is a bar chart with bars drawn in order of decreasing frequency or relative frequency. 6. Different sample or population sizes make comparisons using frequencies difficult. 7. Pareto charts emphasize those observations with the higher frequencies or relative frequencies. In a quality control situation, a Pareto chart helps identify the most frequently occurring problems. 8. The data as reported could not be made into a pie chart because the percentages do not add to 100%. They add to more than 100% which implies that some people selected more than one category as a reason for not losing weight. 9. (a) Large; 52% (b) X-Large; 9% (c) 23% 10. (a) ( )( ) 0.21 1,548,000 325,080 = women had liposuction. (b) ( )( ) 0.14 1,548,000 216,720 = women had eyelid surgery. (c) ( ) 100 9 14 18 21 100 62 38 + + + = = 38% of cosmetic surgeries are not accounted for in the graph. 11. (a) United States (b) 20 million (c) Roughly 94 69 25 million = 12. (a) 22,196,000 whites were living in poverty. (b) 12,114/(22,196 11,390 12,114 3,551) 0.2460 + + + or 24.6% (c) The graph does not account for the different population size of each ethnic group.
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