chapter2 - Chapter 2 Organizing and Summarizing Data 2.1...

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24 Chapter 2 Organizing and Summarizing Data 2.1 Organizing Qualitative Data 1. Raw data are the data as originally collected, before they have been organized or coded. 2. number (or count); proportion (or percent) 3. It is a good idea to add up the frequencies in a frequency distribution as a check to see if you missed data or possibly counted the same data more than once. If the total of the frequencies does not equal the total number of data values, the distribution should be done again. 4. The relative frequencies should add to 1 (though deviations may occur due to rounding error). 5. A Pareto chart is a bar chart with bars drawn in order of decreasing frequency or relative frequency. 6. Different sample or population sizes make comparisons using frequencies difficult. 7. Pareto charts emphasize those observations with the higher frequencies or relative frequencies. In a quality control situation, a Pareto chart helps identify the most frequently occurring problems. 8. The data as reported could not be made into a pie chart because the percentages do not add to 100%. They add to more than 100% which implies that some people selected more than one category as a reason for not losing weight. 9. (a) Large; 52% (b) X-Large; 9% (c) 23% 10. (a) () ( ) 0.21 1,548,000 325,080 = women had liposuction. (b) ( ) 0.14 1,548,000 216,720 = women had eyelid surgery. (c) 100 9 14 18 21 100 62 38 −+++ = − = 38% of cosmetic surgeries are not accounted for in the graph. 11. (a) United States (b) 20 million (c) Roughly 94 69 25 million = 12. (a) 22,196,000 whites were living in poverty. (b) 12,114/(22,196 11,390 12,114 3,551) 0.2460 +++≈ or 24.6% (c) The graph does not account for the different population size of each ethnic group.
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Section 2.1 Organizing Qualitative Data 25 13. (a) 397,157 votes (b) 62,041,268 59,028,548 463,635 397,157 144,451 223,249 122,298,308 ++ + + + = Bush: 62,041,268 0.507 122,298,308 or 50.7% Kerry: 59,028,548 0.483 122,298,308 or 48.3% (c) 463,635 0.0038 122,298,308 or 0.38%; No, Ralph Nader will not receive presidential election funds since he received less than 5% of the votes. 14. (a) approximately 32% (b) approximately ( )( ) 9.3 0.13 1.2 million 15. (a) 0.16; 0.30 (b) Natural gas was the most popular source. (c) About () ( ) 107 0.05 5.35 = million households used LPG. (d) Answers will vary; one possibility is the price of oil (e) Fuel Oil or Kerosene; oil prices (f) Both natural gas and liquid petroleum gas have remained rather steady. 16. (a) 5698 5265 433 −= more doctorates were awarded. (b) 5963 5265 8369 6777 5412 6627 2297 40,710 ++++++= Physical Science: 5963 0.146 40,710 or 14.6%; Education: 6627 0.163 40,710 or 16.3% (c) Education (d) Life Sciences 17. (a) Total income = 793.7 + 131.8 + 713.0 + 143.8 = $1782.3 billion. Relative frequency of Individual Income Taxes = 793.7 0.4453 1782.3 and so on. Relative Source of Income Frequency Individual Income Taxes 0.4453 Corporate Income Taxes 0.0739 Social Insurance Taxes 0.4000 Excise, Estate and Gift Taxes, Customs, and Miscellaneous Receipts 0.0807 (b) 44.53% of the government’s income is attributed to individual income taxes.
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Chapter 2 Organizing and Summarizing Data 26 (c) Government Income 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Individual Income Taxes Corporate Income Taxes Social Insurance Taxes Excise, Estate and Gift Taxes, Customs, and Miscellaneous Receipts Source Amount (in billions of dollars) (d) Government Income 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 Individual Income Taxes Corporate Income Taxes Social Insurance Taxes Excise, Estate and Gift Taxes, Customs, and Miscellaneous
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This note was uploaded on 11/21/2011 for the course NGN 111 taught by Professor Ahmad during the Spring '11 term at American Dubai.

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chapter2 - Chapter 2 Organizing and Summarizing Data 2.1...

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