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L2.5 - Concepts and Categories (Jul-29)

L2.5 - Concepts and Categories (Jul-29) - Particularly...

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Psychology C120: Lecture 2.5 — Concepts and Categories Psychology C120: Lecture 2.5 Concepts and Categories Early Views and Problems Prototype and Exemplar Theories Problems with Similarity Other Theories 1 Psychology C120: Lecture 2.5 — Concepts and Categories Particularly Relevant Today ! Mind and Brain: How does studying cognition go beyond studying the brain? ! How do our cognitive processes reflect the structure of the external world? ! Methods: How can we study cognitive processes without directly observing what the brain is doing? ! How do we know that our theories meaningfully reflect how the mind works? ! Information processing in context ! Reductionism vs. emergence and downward causation 2 Psychology C120: Lecture 2.5 — Concepts and Categories Questions to Consider ! How are concepts and categories related? ! How do we mentally represent concepts? ! What is wrong with the idea that similarity is what determines category membership? ! How might category identification and category definition be different? 3 Psychology C120: Lecture 2.5 — Concepts and Categories Concepts and Categories ! Category — set of objects that are grouped together ! Concept — knowledge that determines category membership 4 A domesticated ruminant mammal with a thick woolly coat and (typically only in the male) curving horns. It is kept in flocks for its wool or meat, and is proverbial for its tendency to follow others in the flock.
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Psychology C120: Lecture 2.5 — Concepts and Categories Why Categorize? ! Classification — group things and treat them as functionally the same ! Understanding — reduces number of things to explain, and helps link knowledge ! Prediction — new member of category likely to behave like old member ! Reasoning — generalization, forming hybrid concepts ! Communication — share knowledge with others 5 Psychology C120: Lecture 2.5 — Concepts and Categories Psychology C120: Lecture 2.5 Concepts and Categories Early Views and Problems Prototype and Exemplar Theories Problems with Similarity Other Theories 6 Psychology C120: Lecture 2.5 — Concepts and Categories Classical View ! Intuition: concepts have definitions ! Definition consists of necessary and sufficient conditions ! Necessary Bachelor => {Adult, Male, Unmarried} ! Sufficiency {Adult, Male, Unmarried} => Bachelor 7 Psychology C120: Lecture 2.5 — Concepts and Categories Problems ! Hard to determine conditions ! How do you define a game? ! Borderline cases ! Is the Pope a bachelor? Someone co- habitating? ! Is a lamp furniture? ! "Better" examples ! A robin is a better bird than a penguin 8
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Psychology C120: Lecture 2.5 — Concepts and Categories Which is more typical?
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