L3.1 - Reasoning (Aug-3)

L3.1 - Reasoning (Aug-3) - Particularly Relevant Today...

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Psychology C120: Lecture 3.1 — Reasoning Psychology C120: Lecture 3.1 Reasoning Prologue Deductive Reasoning Inductive Reasoning Other Examples 1 Psychology C120: Lecture 3.1 — Reasoning Particularly Relevant Today ! Performance: How good are we at the cognitive tasks that we undertake? ! What are the limits of our cognitive capacity? ! What cognitive tasks do we tend to do well, and where do we tend to fail? ! When studying the mind's performance, how do we know what is "right"? ! Information processing in context ! Correspondence, coherence, and pragmatic criteria 2 Psychology C120: Lecture 3.1 — Reasoning Questions to Consider ! What is the difference between deductive and inductive reasoning? ! What determines whether deductive and inductive conclusions are correct? ! When is it easy, and when is it hard for us to reason deductively? ! What is Bayes' Theorem, and how does it relate to inductive reasoning? ! What are mental models and intuitive theories, and how do they affect people's behavior? 3 Psychology C120: Lecture 3.1 — Reasoning Psychology C120: Lecture 3.1 Reasoning Prologue Deductive Reasoning Inductive Reasoning Other Examples 4
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Psychology C120: Lecture 3.1 — Reasoning Thinking is the systematic transformation of mental representations of knowledge to characterize actual or possible states of the world, often in the service of goals. (Holyoak and Morrison, 2005) Relation to Prior Units ! This unit: Thinking and Reasoning ! Unit 1 — automatic perceptual inferences ! Unit 2 — automatic inferences in semantic memory; categorical reasoning ! Unit 3 — more complex and deliberate 5 Reasoning is drawing conclusions from given information. Psychology C120: Lecture 3.1 — Reasoning Unit Overview ! Shorter time scale ! 3.1 — Inductive and Deductive Inferences, Hypothesis Testing, Mental Models ! 3.2 — Choices and Judgments Under Uncertainty ! Longer time scale ! 3.3 — Basic Problem Solving ! 3.4 — Higher-Order Problem Solving (Expertise, Creativity) 6 Psychology C120: Lecture 3.1 — Reasoning Today: Reasoning ! Reasoning goes from premises to conclusions ! Juxtaposition is called an argument ! Notation: ! Arguments may be valid and/or true ! Or, coherent and correspondent 7 P, Q, ... Any statement that can be true or false ~P Opposite of P (true when P is false) P ! Q If P is true, then Q is true (P implies Q) " Therefore, as in P ! Q, P " Q Psychology C120: Lecture 3.1 — Reasoning ! Premises: ! Fred is Mary's brother ! Mary is Lisa's mother ! Conclusion: ! Fred is Lisa's uncle ! Demonstrates deductive reasoning ! Given a valid argument and premises that are true, the conclusion is guaranteed to be true Example: Deductive Reasoning 8 Fred Mary siblings Lisa mother daughter uncle
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Psychology C120: Lecture 3.1 — Reasoning Example: Inductive Reasoning ! Premises: ! Fred is Mary's brother ! Mary is Lisa's mother ! Conclusion: !
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