L3.3 - Problem Solving (Aug-8)

L3.3 - Problem Solving (Aug-8) - Particularly Relevant...

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Psychology C120: Lecture 3.3 — Problem Solving Psychology C120: Lecture 3.3 Problem Solving Studying Problem Solving Search Representation 1 Psychology C120: Lecture 3.3 — Problem Solving Particularly Relevant Today ! Mind and Brain: How does studying cognition go beyond studying the brain? ! How do our cognitive processes refect the structure oF the external world? ! Methods: How can we study cognitive processes without directly observing what the brain is doing? ! How can we express our theories about these processes? ! Information processing in context ! Reductionism vs. emergence and downward causation 2 Psychology C120: Lecture 3.3 — Problem Solving Questions to Consider ! What makes problem solving difFcult? ! How do people study problem solving? Why don't typical methods from cognitive science work? ! How do people overcome the traps present with simple search approaches? ! How does the choice of representation affect the nature of problem solving? 3 Psychology C120: Lecture 3.3 — Problem Solving Psychology C120: Lecture 3.3 Problem Solving Studying Problem Solving Search Representation 4
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Psychology C120: Lecture 3.3 — Problem Solving Problem Solving is Special ! Problem solving — attaining a goal in situations where there is no simple, direct means to do so 5 Reasoning/Decisions Problem Solving Short time frame Longer time frame Well-deFned Often ill-deFned Simple techniques Complex techniques Consistent approaches New/adapted approaches Psychology C120: Lecture 3.3 — Problem Solving Talking About Problems ! Problems analyzed formally with. .. ! States — representation of problem in various states of completion, including. . ! Initial State — starting conFguration ! Goal State(s) — Fnal conFguration, or conditions on Fnal conFguration ! Operators — ways to change on state into another ! Problem solving is selecting sequence of operators to go from initial to goal state 6 Newell and Simon, 1972 — Human Problem Solving Psychology C120: Lecture 3.3 — Problem Solving Example: Eight-Tile Puzzle ! Example: Solve an eight-tile puzzle 7 ! Initial state: ! Goal state: ! Operators: move tile to empty position Psychology C120: Lecture 3.3 — Problem Solving Example: Solution 8
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Psychology C120: Lecture 3.3 — Problem Solving Example: Careers ! Choosing a career is also problem-solving ! Example of an ill-defned problem ! Contrast most games, which are well-defned ! Part of problem-solving is transforming from ill-deFned to well-deFned 9 Psychology C120: Lecture 3.3 — Problem Solving Studying Problem Solving ! Most cognitive processes either. .. ! Happen very quickly (order of ms) => RT measures ! Involves simple processes => Error/Interference measures ! Problem solving often. .. ! Takes much longer (order of seconds, minutes, longer) ! Involves many complex processes ! Leads to both ability and need to understand intermediate steps 10 Psychology C120: Lecture 3.3 — Problem Solving Method 1: Intermediate Products ! Most cognitive psychology work only records the answer ! In problem solving, journey may be more interesting ! Examples ! Record set of steps taken to solve equation !
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L3.3 - Problem Solving (Aug-8) - Particularly Relevant...

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