L3.4 - Expertise and Creativity (Aug-10)

L3.4 - Expertise and Creativity (Aug-10) - Particularly...

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Unformatted text preview: Particularly Relevant Today ! Mind and Brain: How does studying cognition go beyond studying the brain? Psychology C120: Lecture 3.4 ! How do our cognitive processes reflect the structure of the external world? Expertise and Creativity ! Methods: How can we study cognitive processes without directly observing what the brain is doing?!! Expertise Creativity ! How do we make objective inferences about people's internal mental processes?! ! ! Performance: How good are we at the cognitive tasks that we undertake? ! Information processing in context!! ! Reductionism vs. emergence and downward causation Psychology C120: Lecture 3.4 — Expertise and Creativity 1 Psychology C120: Lecture 3.4 — Expertise and Creativity 2 Questions to Consider ! Can expertise and creativity be accounted for using ordinary cognitive processes? Psychology C120: Lecture 3.4 Expertise and Creativity ! How do expertise and creativity affect representation and search? Expertise Creativity ! How can you develop expertise and creativity? ! How do insights occur?" Psychology C120: Lecture 3.4 — Expertise and Creativity 3 Psychology C120: Lecture 3.4 — Expertise and Creativity 4 About Expertise ! Facts" ! Expertise is most evident in difficult situations ! Expertise is highly domain-specific ! As expertise increases, performances requires less of the brain ! Expertise requires 10+ years of training Does this person have super-human abilities, or has he just appliedRnormal nhumans abilitiesu nin 0atypicalv eways?Vo l.5 N o .6 J u n e 20 01 T E N D S i n C o g i t iO p ic i eoc e Vo l . 5 N o . 6 J T R E N01S i n C o g n i t i S c i e n c e s v e S ni n n e2 D O pinio n Psychology C120: Lecture 3.4 O pinio n — Expertise and Creativity 5 T R E N D S i n C o g n i t i v e S c i e n c e s Vo l . 5 N o . 6 J u n e 2 0 01 237 ! How might expertise affect problem solving? 237 237 Psychology C120: Lecture 3.4 — Expertise and Creativity 6 Box 1. 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Ty p i c a l l y, p l a y e r s a t a n d a b o v e ma mte .rTy p ec a l l y, pba y e rm e taacaldd sosbrc rf ipnediicnogs, ebroiudteeleelcclil toe d bn c o m e a c l a s s i c f i n d i n g , w i d e l y c i t e d i n g as e le v i l l e c o s a mn a canit o v e m ta s t aw l te h ry a f i e v r a n d o m p o s i t i o n s . I n t h e ch e s s s i m u l a t i o n s , (a) t s i o n a l moR sSt p ea ine vr o y, baua b a o f g s r t i x b o o k s r e c a l l t h e e n t i r e p o s i t i o n a l m o s t p e r f e crtey,ablutth e e n t i r e p oe xttib o o k sC HofEcToi sgrnifteidcftempas ytcth s e loom ayt ea n d en tp a p e rs o f c o g n i t i v e p s y ch o l o g y a n d i n p a p e r s lc l ld tr n n o f r m p o oa m yo (d. e i ip igg . tt ). o d s i i e w e a k e r p l a y e r s p e r f o r m p o o r l y (s e e F i g . e). k e r p l a y e r s p e rnoe x p e rt igsrsli te.i s,nisseA stefeyxF e cpeadI,etrhnesmfop ieelc’se a bnl itthyetsoe o n e x p e rt i s e . w Ia po t me nr mp o a H o w e v e r, C h a s e a n d S i m o n f o u n d n o d i ff e re v e re C h a s e a n d H om o nr efm eu bndg an olpioeiirt ifoeeies irc vndi nsft hC n u m bErS T, o w e v e r, a n e a r l i e r v e r s i o n o f C H R E S T, a Ho w enc , in S i w e v e o, m ne r e a r ds f v s r n oee o e H R e H a ra a n d a v e r a g e s i z e o f i t s ch u n k s i n c r e a s e d . H o w e v e r, t r e c a l l o f r a n d o m p o s i t i o n s b e t w e e n t h eerct hlr e e r a n d o m p o siimo ne mhe tno da teloon hoe ied ae m aee,enusrioo u st o f r e are -Pmcp l e m e n t a t i o n a n d e x t e n s i o n o f M A P P c , r i al of r e - t i p l s b e mw el a n t ha w r t hx tl l b t b n i n c Ms A i P , t e is s nd sr e i n r e c a l l w i t h r a n d o m p o s i t i o n s . T h e s k i l l d i ff e r e n c e s m a d e c o ni t r e crlywprr ehdriec t itofn n easbyo x ptatnhd r e ca dleoc o n t r a r y p r e d i c t i o n s a b o u t t h e r e c a l l o f f n r a a l e e t e su l o a s a il e u l i e e m a l m ec l r r a n d o m pdossrhi a nioami:osni.mIenw b ykcealcchl,yet sisgcel uidm a ttleanrsia n d o m p o s i t i o n s . I n t h e ch e s s s i m u l a t i o n s , i t i i s n s n ptl y o rh ihs nk ee a oa rn s e p u r t o n s , ti i c mn t (b) (a) (a) fo f C H R E S T i s utnrdai n naedd m r osm na. A sastam aai c rev iow oC H Rt eS T i s t r a i n e d f r o m a d a t a b a s e o f m a s t e r i r n o f p o iti o s d y t e b t s e e f m a s E r 25 e x p e r i m e n t s t h a t a s k e d ch e s s p l a y e r s t o r e c a l l g a m e s , i drenn t i f yoisnt ign s ai e ltde r2 ssu doefs ip iwe ch s ig atme s e i d e n t i f y i n g p a t t e r n s o f p i e c e s i n t h e s e n h e s, a dom p i o p y t s 1 n t i n h ic e 20 m a s t e r s d e m o n s t r a t e d s o m e s u p e r i o r i t y, a n d o n l y p o s i t i o n s .o nA,s he s e pne c tm od’, sthde mho rd e l ’s aatbplots i ttio n s . A s e x p e c t e d , t h e m o d e l ’s a b i l i t y t o x e n s t u y , w e e t h e m s e ri i y e C a a d Si u l d e o s i a n n ic . A t h r o h h d i e m r e m e m b earctgaal ymi d wproest ht ino o vs eisml p o u gv te e skalrls t h e m u m b e rm e p o s i t i o n s i m p r o v e d a s t h e n u m b e r n b er ga 15 d i ff e r e n c e s w e r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t i n m o s t s t u d i e s e a s o l oo a s ic l n w e h ef e t a n d a v e r abgceusei zfea ck f fisttst icthaup ok sr, it nec rf e ca s e d . d a v eea g e, s i z e o f i t s ch u n k s i n c r e a s e d . H o w e v e r, a n H o w r v er Game b e c o m e s cl e a r w h e n t h e v a ri o u s st u d i e s a r e p o o l e d 10 t h e m o d e (ls e elF i goI b ).h h e wcetda tap escm ta a ll chbnuit gr o t h e t i n c re laa le o s h o w e d a s m a l l , b u t r o b u s t i n c r e a s e a s . s T o fa t h r e p u l , u k n b u s m o d e s s Random ov e i n r e c a l l wparn d iodmspmsaiditooss wfifte raossd vnagnst an so.rvtTnhne s kn lrd ic aelr e nt h sa n d o m p o s i t i o n s . T h e s k i l l d i f f e r e n c e s i t h r a o st e n m p sn tar ot i oug e e ef o ri n roh i i i l e ff l w i c e r r pp 5 ch ur e b ahee tr e siu l t no fs aa r d e a x pil l y ferx i n a i n e dl w e r e t h e r e s u l t o f a n e a s i l y e x p l a i n e d n k- t s d h e o r e s , a d i h n t o e s a i n o p l r e c a l i n recall w e t h e o r i e s o f e x p e rt i s e b a s e d u p o n h i g h -l e v e l m e ch a n i skm : lsd g e op sch eb yt ac.h a n c e , a l a r g e m e ch a n i s m : s i m p l y b y ch a n c e , a l a r g e r r 0 now e i m r l y ma <1600 1600–2000 2000–2350 >2350 GAME RANDOM af o e u sc p a ti e a t o (b) (b) Skill (in ELO points)d i s c r i m i n Reteirencns n e t w o r k i s l i k e l y t o i n c l d id e r i m t n r nis n n e t w o r k i s l i k e l y t o i n c l u d e p a tt e r n s a De Groot, A.D. (1946) Het Denken van den Schaker, Noord fo u n d tic n d e r n d Hol an m TRENDS in Cognitive Sciencesi n r a n dlo dschep o s i t i o n s . A s y s t e m af o ur e v i n wao f o m p o s i t i o n s . A s y s t e m a t i c r e v i e w o f 25 25 b Simon, H.A. and Chase, W.G. (1973) Skill in chess. Am. Sci. e x p e r i m e n t61, t9h–a0t a s k e d cSee also p l a y et ral. (2001)e c i m e n t s t h a t a s k e d ch e s s p l a y e r s t o r e c a l l s3343 h e s s Gobet e s eo p e r a l l t xr Fi g. I. ( a ) Ty p e s o f p o s i t i o n s t y p i c a l l y u s e d i n ch e s s m e m o r y c Simon, H.A. and Gilmartin, K.J. (1973) A simulation of r e s e a r ch . A g a m e p o s i t i o n t a k e n f r o m a m a s t e r s ’ g a m e ( l e f t ), a n d a dy d r ti n s o f g m e m m ry fo c o it ns C gnit. s c u 5 9–46 r a n d o m p s i t i o n Creativity Psychology C120: Lecture 3.4 — Expertise oando b t a i n e d b y s h u ffli n g t h e p i e c e l o c aaon daoam p o s iet ioo nrshess piseilod.s o1 2 Psythol.d,i2e s i nr wn dch p o s i t i o n s y i e l d s 1 2C120: iLecture 3.4ch Expertise and Creativity Psychology s t u d e s i n w h i — 7a h i o m d Gobet, F. and Simon, H.A. (1996) Recall of rapidly presented p o s i t i o n (r i g h t). ( b ) M e a n n u m b e r ( a v e r a g e d o v e r 13 s t u d i e s) o f 20 rano n hes r ost e s i a un m e s ll. p e o i o r m a a e r o n l m p i e c e s p l a c e d c o rr e c t l y 20 u n c t i o n o f p o s i t i o n t y pm a m so r e r s d e m dom cs ts pa itiond s sfo ction of skiu Psychrnomic i t y , s tn ds d e y o n s t r a t e d s o m e s u p e r i o r i t y , a n d o n l y as a f e (g a e t Bull. Rev. 3, 159–163 r a n d o m ) a n d ski l l l e v e l. Po siti o n s h a d 25 p i e c e s o n a v e r a g e , a n d t h e b , w h e r e t h e m a st e r e a be d S 9 m o rt ’s s y u d y b , w h r p r e s e n t a t i o n t i m e w a s ! 10 s . E rr o r b a r s i n d i c a t e s t ao nd e r, oCo f a s e Gon t, F. (19i 8) Expenmemort : a comparison of foue r e t h e C h a s e r n d S i m o n ’s s t u d y n d ar e r rs h o n e , m a st a theories. Cognition 66, 115–152 t h e m e a n s . ( A d a p t e d f r o m R e f. d .) a c t u a l l y d i d w o r s e t h a n n o v i c e s . A l t h oa c t h a hl e s kdl lw o r s e t h a n n o v i c e s . A l t h o u g h t h e s k i l l ug u t l y di i a b Expertise and Memory Analogical Transfer No. of pieces recalled correctly ! Chase and Simon, 1973 ! Tested chess novices and experts for memory of board positions! ! Experts have better memory... ! ... but only for meaningful boards d b e alled correctly alled correctly ! Experts have better chunking strategies c ! Convergence problem ! General ! Radiation ! Gick and Holyoak (1980, 1983) — poor analogical transfer ! Due to surface rather than deep encoding of relevant elements No prompt 10% Told “General” story 30% Told relevance 80% 8 22.7 Expertise and Encoding Expertise and Search ! Chi, Feltovich, & Glaser, 1981 — Categorization Expertise & presented physics (Chi, Feltovich, & Glaser, 1981) problems to Novices Experts novices and “conservation “inclined planes” experts of energy” ! Seeing many problems leads to generalized problem schemas 22.8 ! Problem schemas support knowledge transfer across problems Psychology C120: Lecture 3.4 — Expertise and Creativity 2x + 3 = 11 ! Experts work forwards ! Novices work backwards subtract 3 from each side •Current state: 2x + 3 = 11 •Goal: x on one side, number an the other •Operators: +, –, x, ÷, factor [!] •Subgoal: put all numbers on one side •Operators: +, –, x, ÷, factor •Apply operator: 2x = 11 – 3 = 8 •Difference eliminated: divide by 2, x = 4 •Goal achieved 2x = 8 divide each side by 2 x=4 ! Requires tracking subgoals, taxing WM 9 Psychology C120: Lecture 3.4 — Expertise and Creativity 10 Characteristics of Expertise Expertise and Procedural Memory • Enhanced performance is generally restricted to domain of expertise – Radiologists have better memory for abnormal x-rays, not for faces or normal x-rays – Chess experts have superior memory for real board positions, not spatial arrangements in general ! Experts "proceduralize" declarative • Enhanced performance results from effective use of √ knowledge basic cognitive processes −b ± b2 − 4ac x diagnostic features = – Radiologists selectively attend to ! Solve for x: x2 +– 2hess= 3 have board position “chunks” 2a C x experts a = schemas, c = − – Physics experts have abstract problem1, b = 2,abstract 3 bases for evaluating similarity ￿ ! Declarative: must −2 ± (−2)2 − 4(1)(−3) x= 2(1) deliberately notice, √ = (−2 ± 4)/2 = −3 or 1 then check applicability ! Procedural: instantly categorized as a qualifying formula ! ACT-R models as IF-THEN expressions constantly checked in parallel Psychology C120: Lecture 3.4 — Expertise and Creativity Summary ! Novices have it rough ...! ! ! Hard to know how to approach problem ! Hard to keep problem in memory 22.9 ! So: novices use surface features, and work backwards ! Experts have it easier ...! ! ! Stored knowledge of common solution approaches ! Automatic categorization based on deep features ! Efficient representations to aid working memory !! 3 ! Thus: better representations, better guiding of search! 11 Psychology C120: Lecture 3.4 — Expertise and Creativity 12 Creativity Psychology C120: Lecture 3.4 Expertise and Creativity Expertise Creativity Psychology C120: Lecture 3.4 — Expertise and Creativity 13 Defining Creativity 14 Problem Finding vs. Solving ! Creative thinking recognized by creative outcomes ! Problem finding is determining what problem to solve ... ! Creativity ≠ Creating ! What questions are interesting! ! ! Creative outcomes are novel and valuable ! How to think about the problem at hand! ! ! H-creativity, or "Big-C" creativity — novel with respect to history! ! Getzels and Csikszentmihalyi, 1976 — creativity of artists predicted from problem finding, not problem solving skills ! P-creativity, or "little-C" creativity — novel with respect to you!! ! Note: may occur after the solution is there (e.g., Post-It Notes) ! Question: is creative cognition fundamentally different than ordinary cognition? Psychology C120: Lecture 3.4 — Expertise and Creativity Psychology C120: Lecture 3.4 — Expertise and Creativity 15 Psychology C120: Lecture 3.4 — Expertise and Creativity 16 Equal Odds Rule Creativity and Operators ! Problem finding, equal odds => problem solving in not special; still, cognitive barriers exist" ! Question: what creations will be fantastically successful? ! Equal-odds rule! ! ! Best predictor of major success is total number of contributions B – A – 2C B – A – 2C B – A – 2C A + 2C B – A – 2C A–C A+C A–C A+C A–C B – A – 2C ! Success rate doesn't differ between "geniuses" and others ! Success is unpredictable (often surprised by what's successful) ! Einstellung Effect — mechanization of approach leads to neglect of simple or elegant solution ! Explanation: success due to timing, reception Psychology C120: Lecture 3.4 — Expertise and Creativity 17 Creativity and Insight (1/2) Psychology C120: Lecture 3.4 — Expertise and Creativity ! What happens during incubation that leads to illumination/insight? ! Smith and Blankenship, 1991" " ! Give misleading information for insight problem SPACE SHIP OUTER SPACE DOG FOOD eat 55% 30 min. + 30 min. break 64% 30 min. + 4 hr. break 18 Creativity and Insight (2/2) ! Old view: preparation, incubation, illumination, and verification (Wallace, 1926) ! Silveira, 1971 — longer incubation aids insight ! Join four chains, three links long! ! ! Costs: 2¢ to open, 3¢ to close! ! ! Goal: join all 12 into a circle for 15¢ or less 30 min. Psychology C120: Lecture 3.4 — Expertise and Creativity CRAWL SPACE DOG CATCHER HOT pitcher cold DOG ! Current account: forgetting past solution attempts 85% 19 Psychology C120: Lecture 3.4 — Expertise and Creativity 20 Structure of Insight Problems Summary ! Why are insight problems hard?! ! ! Search can get ..." " ! Perkins, 2000 — structure of problem space ! “[M]aybe instead of bombarding minds with puzzles to see how the minds work, we are bombarding puzzles with minds to see how the puzzles work.” (Perkins, 2000, p. 27) ! Suggested strategies! ! ! Roving — broad exploration! ! ! Routinized (Einstellung) ! ! Trapped (Insight and forgetting)! ! ! Still, problem finding may matter more than problem solving ! Best way to be very successful is to do a lot (but, do it mindfully) ! Detecting — intensive examination of problem statement ! Reframing — relaxing constraints, restructuring problem!! ! Decentering — trying a completely new approach Psychology C120: Lecture 3.4 — Expertise and Creativity 21 Psychology C120: Lecture 3.4 — Expertise and Creativity 22 Conclusions ! Creative people may think differently, but the successful ones also work harder!"" Psychology C120: Lecture 3.4 Expertise and Creativity Expertise Creativity Psychology C120: Lecture 3.4 — Expertise and Creativity ! Experts may think differently, but it takes 10+ years to get to that point! 23 Psychology C120: Lecture 3.4 — Expertise and Creativity NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER Learn the secret to unlocking your inner creative genius! PUT THE DAMN BOOK DOWN AND GET TO WORK!!! Kyle E. Jennings, Ph.D. 24 Particularly Relevant Today Questions to Consider ! Mind and Brain: How does studying cognition go beyond studying the brain? ! How do our cognitive processes reflect the structure of the external world? ! Methods: How can we study cognitive processes without directly observing what the brain is doing?!! ! How do we make objective inferences about people's internal mental processes?! ! ! Can expertise and creativity be accounted for using ordinary cognitive processes? ! How do expertise and creativity affect representation and search? ! How can you develop expertise and creativity? ! How do insights occur?" ! Performance: How good are we at the cognitive tasks that we undertake? ! Information processing in context!! ! Reductionism vs. emergence and downward causation Psychology C120: Lecture 3.4 — Expertise and Creativity 25 Psychology C120: Lecture 3.4 — Expertise and Creativity 26 ...
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