LR - Recap (Aug-10) - Final Announcements ! Thursday —...

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Unformatted text preview: Final Announcements ! Thursday — Last day to participate in experiments Psychology C120 ! Friday during class — third midterm Course Recap ! Bring a green Scantron ! Friday — Last day to allocate RPP credits to this course ! I will be unreachable from August 12 after 5:00 until morning of Tuesday, August 17 ! Grades will be submitted by Wednesday, August 18 Psychology C120: Recap ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! verarching questions O ! ind and Brain: How does studying cognition go beyond studying the brain? M • ! How do our cognitive processes reflect the structure of the external world? • ! How do our cognitive processes reflect our evolutionary past? • ! How do "brain" and "mind" studies inform each other? ! ethods: How can we study cognitive processes without directly observing what M the brain is doing? • ! How do we make objective inferences about people's internal mental processes? • ! How can we express our theories about these processes? • ! How do we know that our theories meaningfully reflect how the mind works? ! erformance: How good are we at the cognitive tasks that we undertake? P • ! What are the limits of our cognitive capacity? • ! What cognitive tasks do we tend to do well, and where do we tend to fail? • ! When studying the mind's performance, how do we know what is "right"? ! verarching ideas O • ! Information processing in context • ! Correspondence, coherence, and pragmatic criteria • ! Reductionism vs. emergence and downward causation Psychology C120: Recap Psychology C120: Recap 2 Core Concepts ! Concept 1: Cognition as Contextualized Information Processing ! Representations — whatʼs easy, whatʼs hard ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Surface Features Deep Features ! nit 1 — Fundamentals U • ! Ch. 1 — Overview • ! Ch. 2 — Learning • ! Ch. 9 — Language • ! Ch. 3 — Perception • ! Ch. 4 — Attention ! nit 2 — Memory and Mental Representation U • ! Ch. 5 — Memory Overview • ! Ch. 6 — Memory Systems • ! Ch. 7 — Real-World Memory • ! Ch. 8 — Spatial Memory • ! Ch. 10 — Concepts and Categories ! nit 3 — Thinking and Reasoning U • ! Ch. 11 — Reasoning • ! Ch. 14 — Judgment and Decision Making • ! Ch. 12 — Problem Solving • ! Ch. 13 — Expertise and Creativity Becoming an expert in cognitive psychology 1 ! Algorithms — heuristics and errors ! Goals of computational modeling ! Specific computational models Our Course 3 Psychology C120: Recap 4 Core Concepts Core Concepts ! Concept 2: Correspondence, Coherence, and Pragmatic Criteria ! Concept 3: Reductionism vs. Emergence ! Whatʼs objectively true, whatʼs internally consistent, and whatʼs useful? ! Marrʼs levels — computational and implementation levels constrain the algorithmic level ! Avoiding misunderstandings between researchers by being explicit about kind of criteria in use ! Avoiding reductionism — pay attention to environment (social and physical) and the problem (Marrʼs computational level) Psychology C120: Recap 5 Core Question #1 Psychology C120: Recap 6 Core Question #2 ! Core Question #1: Mind and Brain ! Core Question #2: Methods ! How does studying cognition go beyond studying the brain? ! How can we study cognitive processes without directly observing what the brain is doing? ! Our cognitive processes work in ways that make sense in our environment and given our survival needs ! Introspection is a starting point, not an end ! Different processes take different amounts of time and lead to different mistakes ! Brain studies can augment cognitive understanding, but not replace it ! Understanding progresses by advancing disprovable theories that make new predictions “The problem right now with imaging is that doing experiments right is really, really hard, but getting pictures out is really easy” Steven Petersen, Growing Pains for fMRI Psychology C120: Recap 7 Psychology C120: Recap 8 Core Question #3 Interfaces ! Core Question #3: Performance ! Cognitive psychology meets — ! How good are we at the cognitive tasks that we undertake? ! Biology — neuroscience, genetics ! Social psychology — social cognition, emotion and cognition ! Our mind does amazing things that we take for granted ! Artificial intelligence — better models of cognition, more intelligent software ! It is at its best in real-world, concrete situations ! Applied fields — improving real-world judgments, improving educational practice ! Evidence of bias or error should invite inquiry into both theory and evidence — not just triumphalism about our feeble capacities Psychology C120: Recap ! Expanding boundaries: creativity, wisdom, morality, culture 9 Psychology C120: Recap 10 Inquiries Welcome Example Attribution (and Culture) Research Directions Creativity as Search ! Used to compare coherence of attributions across culture Normative Model ! Developing elicitation techniques! ! ! Two causes for effect, E ! U — you are uncertain if it was present ! C — you are certain it was present ! Normative standard: P (C | U ) P (E | C, U ) P (U E, C ) = P U · posterior | / prior (= ) · co-occ P (E rel. like. x | C) P (C ) 28 30 39 19 Prologue 31 22 27 54 59 1 0 108 49 51 48 50 52 26 24 32 36 23 25 33 37 35 34 38 3 39 41 4347 40 44 42 46 53 60 612 64 6 66 45 2 63 67 65 17 Psychology C120: Lecture 3.1 — Reasoning 0 40000 80000 11 7 9 8 12 10 13 16 15 14 38 Time (ms) 57 6 56 rel = 0.82 lr = 0.4 55 5 2 45 63 65 54 Hypothesis Testing 22 41 38 40 25 49 21 43 44 36 53 48 23 67 42 144 72 4 3 Camera Angle 34 72 46 47 50 108 144 180 216 252 62 64 66 52 288 324 288 252 0 216 Camera Angle 55 58 19 17 18 28 21 30 5 50 72 18 58 29 6 4 59 57 56 10 14 9 15 20 78 16 33 60 324 Reasoning 32 51 29 Light Angle Example 12 13 11 31 20 27 26 37 36 150 24 61 Distance 35 34 0 Psychology C120: Recap 3.1 Psychology C120: Lecture 147861 250 S166 aes becr 90.3 1 37 ! Intuitively, more confident in Uʼs presence when: ! U is common Psychology C120: Lecture 3.1 — Reasoning ! The two causes tend to occur together ! Their combined effect is stronger than just one Psychology C120: Lecture 3.1 — Reasoning ! Future directions: other attributions (e.g., ability), more cross-cultural comparisons 0 1 >1 36 relative effect likelihood ! Determining influences on attitude attributions 144 >1 >1 cause-cause co-occurrence ! Develop mathematical models of p(e | u, c) 180 prior Thank you! ! Attitude attribution: e.g., attitude on a -4 to 4 scale! 288 >1 posterior >>1 ! Generalized to continuous causes" " 0 72 144 216 288 Light Angle ! Goal of scientific reasoning is to achieve coordination between theory and evidence Psychology C120: Recap 11 (Kuhn, 1997) ! Do people reason scientifically in everyday life? 12 ...
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