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NTR_300_Alcohol_and_the_effects_on_the_body - Fundamentals...

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Unformatted text preview: Fundamentals of Nutrition Alcohol and the effects on the Alcohol body body NTR 300 Dr. Wilfred H. Turnbull 1 Objectives: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Alcoholism: an overview Symptoms of Alcoholism Depression Cirrhosis Malnutrition B-vitamin deficiency Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome Fetal Alcohol Syndrome 2 Alcoholism is a disease that is properly defined as primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations (4). 3 So what does that really mean? “A primary, chronic disease…” A primary disease is one that sustains as primary itself, it’s not just a symptom of an underlying disease state. A chronic disease is one lasting longer than 3 months and cannot be prevented by vaccines or cured by medicine (3). vaccines 4 So what does that really mean? This disease is characteristic of and This develops with genetic, psychosocial (involving both psychological and social aspects) and environmental factors. A statistic states that children of alcoholics are four times more likely than other children to become alcoholics (6). This may be due to mostly environmental factors but also genetic as well. 5 What happens in the body What when you drink? when When a person drinks alcohol, When the alcohol is absorbed through the stomach, enters the bloodstream, and passes into the tissues. The effects of alcohol depend on a variety of things, including a person's size, weight, sex, and age, as well as the amount of food consumed right before and at the time of drinking (7). 6 Symptoms of Alcoholism: 7 Behavioral Changes: Solitary drinking, Solitary unexplained mood swings, missing work, loss interest in social activities. Depression ADDICTION: A progressive, chronic, relapsing disorder that may include a craving for alcohol and a compulsion to use it; inability to control alcohol use and continued use in spite of negative consequences (7). 8 Symptoms of Alcoholism: Symptoms (cont.) (cont.) 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5. 6. Physical symptoms: Physical (usually occurring during withdrawal.) withdrawal.) Nausea Nausea Sweating Sweating Anxiety Anxiety Hallucinations Tremors Fatigue Fatigue Some or all may occur when alcohol use is stopped after a period of heavy drinking. drinking. 9 Why this is unhealthy… Some serious complications of Alcoholism: Depression Cirrhosis Malnutrition B-vitamin deficiency Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome Fetal Alcohol Syndrome 10 10 Depression: Since alcohol is a depressant there is an obvious connection between substance use and psychological effect. Depression is defined as a “psychotic disorder marked especially by sadness, inactivity, difficulty in thinking and concentration, a significant increase or decrease in appetite and time spent sleeping, feelings of loneliness, hopelessness, and sometimes suicidal thoughts (12). “ 11 11 Depression: In Alcoholism, after the initial high or happiness dissolves, the person comes back to reality and experiences a hangover or withdrawal symptoms which produces feelings of dysphoria, or feelings of depression mixed with anxiety and physical malaise (5). 12 12 Depression: Some things that may help depression in people with Alcoholism are antidepressants, psychotherapy to get to the root of the problem, and the twelve step program (or Alcoholics Anonymous.) 13 13 Cirrhosis: Also called the “fatty liver condition”, Also Cirrhosis is a chronic liver disorder involving damage to liver cells, decreased blood flow to the liver and scarring of liver tissue which eventually interferes with liver function (10). eventually Cirrhosis is usually associated with alcohol Cirrhosis addiction but can also be caused due to an illness that can damage the liver I.e.: Hepatitis B&C, and Sarcoidosis (a condition that is similar to tuberculosis). similar 14 14 Cirrhosis: Also, genetic factors or lifestyle and Also, environmental causes where an overload of chemical and drugs can overwork the liver causing scarring. Symptoms of Cirrhosis include jaundice in the eyes and/or skin, ascites (fluid build up in abdomen), nausea, weight loss, edema (fluid build up in the legs) and eventual liver failure. and 15 15 Cirrhosis: Treatments for Cirrhosis include: Avoiding all taxing substances (drugs and alcohol). (drugs A low fat-high protein diet low Colchicine (usually used in Gout cases, helps to reduce scar tissue) cases, Liver transplant (which is a serious effective TX in most cases, but is difficult to find donors) difficult 16 16 Malnutrition: Malnutrition is defined as an imbalance between Malnutrition the intake of nutrients the and the bodies needs(11). Nutrients are and undersupplied and the body is undersupplied imbalanced according to dietary means. imbalanced Malnutrition makes the body weak and may cause other health issues to develop. develop. Alcoholism is the most common cause of thiamin Alcoholism deficiency (Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome) in the USA and may lead to deficiencies of magnesium, zinc, and other vitamins (13). magnesium, 17 17 Malnutrition: Symptoms of this type of malnutrition in Symptoms alcoholism include: Weight loss Fatigue and irritability Loss of appetite Skin and hair change color. Treatment would involve increasing Treatment calories and nutrients in the diet. calories 18 18 B-Vitamin Deficiency Vitamin Deficiencies in the alcoholic are thought to be due to Dietary restriction due to GI disturbances. Changes in the GI tract are due to drinking in excess and interfere with absorption and utilization of many nutrients. The most common B vitamin deficiencies in alcoholics are thiamin (B1), Folate, and Riboflavin (B2). This kind of Vitamin deficiency can be dangerous and eventually lead to brain damage unless treated accordingly. 19 19 Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome Wernicke-Korsakoff (WK) (WK) Also called: Wernicke's disease, alcoholic Also encephalopathy, or “wet-brain.” wet-brain.” WK is a brain disorder caused by a lack of thiamin (Vitamin B-1). Although it is mostly seen in alcoholics, WK can also be seen in people with dietary deficiencies, eating disorders, prolonged vomiting or people vomiting undergoing chemotherapy (9). 20 20 Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WK) A person experiencing this disorder may develop person the following symptoms: the Mental confusion Vision impairment Hypotension Ataxia (inability to use voluntary muscles) Coma Treatment includes proper nutrition, hydration Treatment and re administering (via IV) of and Vitamin B-1. Most symptoms can be reversed if Vitamin detected early. 21 21 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Fetal alcohol syndrome is a condition caused by a Fetal prenatal exposure to prenatal alcohol. It is one of the major causes of mental alcohol. retardation and birth defects. If retardation a woman drinks alcohol during her pregnancy, her woman baby can be born with FAS, baby which is a lifelong condition of physical and mentally which disabling characteristics. disabling FAS is characterized by FAS abnormal facial features Growth deficiencies CNS problems 22 22 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Children born with this condition may also have Children problems with learning, problems memory skills, attention span, and communication memory difficulties throughout their difficulties entire life. This is a very sad and serious condition however, it This is 100% preventable if the is pregnant woman abstains from Alcohol completely pregnant throughout her entire throughout pregnancy. 23 23 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) 24 24 FAS (continuted) 25 25 Ways to help… Primary: prevention and education (in school) can help younger people learn about the significance of alcoholism and how important it is. Secondary: if a family member or loved one is in help there are ways to “intervene” which involves outside support. Tertiary: Treatment, hospitals or a medical environment. www. Alcoholics-anonymous.org/ Alcoholics anonymous website. Al-Anon for family groups 1600 Corporate Landing Pkwy Virginia Beach, VA 23454-5617 (757) 563-1600 26 26 References: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Brannon Linda and Feist Jess Health Psychology, an introduction to Behavior and Brannon Health fifth edition 2004 Health Alcoholics Anonymous www.Alcoholics-anonymous.org. Alcoholics www.Alcoholics-anonymous.org. Chronic disease definition: www.Medicinenet.com. Chronic www.Medicinenet.com National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence: National www.ncadd.org/facts/defalc.html. www.ncadd.org/facts/defalc.html The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/booklet.htm. http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/booklet.htm About.com the facts on alcoholism. Is it inherited? www.alcoholism.about.com/cs/genetics/l/aa990517.htm The Partnership for a Drug-Free America. www.drugfree.org/Portal/drug_guide/Alcohol The University of Maryland Medical Center. www.umm.edu/ency/article/000771.htm National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/wernicke_korsakoff/wernicke-korsakoff.htm 27 27 References: (cont.) 10. Cirrhosis web site: www.gutdoc.org/Cirrohis.htm 11. Merck website: www.merck.com/mrkshared/mmanual/section1/chapter2/2a.jsp 12. Merriam-Webster Online: www.m-w.com 13. Health touch online: www.healthtouch.com 14. Preventing B vitamin deficiencies in alcoholics. www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0847/is_n3_v13/ai_8193308 15. Fetal Alcohol syndrome: www.e-provider.org/04May_FAS.htm. 28 28 ...
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