Unformatted text preview: Phytochemicals
Chapter 11 Controversy Classification of Phytochemicals
Classification of Phytochemicals Terpenes (powerful antioxidants) Carotenoids (more than 600) Betacarotene Lycopene (twice as powerful as betacarotene in the destruction of free radicals)
Limonoids (monoterpenes – found in citrus) Induce enzymes in the liver’s detoxification system Phenols Flavonoids (more than 800) Quercitin
Isoflavones phytoestrogens Phytochemical Classification, cont.
Phytochemical Classification, cont. Thiols (sulfurcontaining phytochemicals) Indoles
Allyl sulfides (in garlic) Lignans (also a type of phytoestrogen) Terpenes
Terpenes Carotenoids: yellow, orange, & red plant pigments found in tomatoes, parsley, oranges, pink grapefruit, spinach Lycopene found in tomatoes. Study showed that men who ate 10 or more servings of lycopenerich foods per week had a 45% reduced risk of prostate cancer development Phenols
Phenols Flavonoids (blue, bluered, violet plant pigments): scavenge free radicals and sequester metal ions Quercetin: inhibits oxidation & cytotoxicity of LDL. May also decrease risk of cancer by scavenging activated mutagens & carcinogens. Found in red & yellow onions, kale, broccoli, red grapes, apples, cereals. Phenols, cont.
Phenols, cont. Flavonoids, cont. Clinical trial with elderly men showed decreased incidence of coronary heart disease with increased consumption of flavonoids from tea, onions, apples Isoflavones: found in soybeans, soy foods, and other beans. Include phytoestrogens. Phytoestrogens
Phytoestrogens Aka phytosterols
Weak, nonsteroidal versions of estrogens (structurally similar) which function both as weak estrogens and as antiestrogens.
Health effects: reduced risk of heart disease, tumor suppression. Asians, many of whom consume soy daily, have decreased incidence of breast, prostate, and other cancers
25 to 50g of soy protein daily decreases LDL cholesterol levels by approx 10% in subjects with hypercholesterolemia Isoflavone content of soy Isoflavone content of soy foods. *Average isoflavone content; amounts vary depending upon variety of soybean used and manufacturing process. Table 12-2. p. 275. Back MENU Forward Thiols
Thiols Sulfurcontaining compounds found in cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, kale, cabbage)
Increase enzymes involved in the detoxification of carcinogens & other foreign compounds
Inverse relationship between consumption of cruciferous vegetables and cancer risk, esp for cancers of the lung, stomach, colon, and rectum Allyl Sulfides
Allyl Sulfides Found in garlic
Increase production of glutathione S transferase (part of liver’s detox system)
Increase activity of macrophages and T lymphocytes
Some evidence that use of garlic in foods improves blood lipids, but results are inconsistent with supplements. Lignans
Lignans Focus of research for anticancer and phytoestrogen properties
In flaxseeds (75 to 800 more than any other plant food), wheat bran, rye meal, buckwheat, oatmeal, barley Phytochemical Supplements?
Phytochemical Supplements? Probably not a good idea, considering the vast array of phytochemicals and the practical impossibility of duplicating the effects of eating abundant amounts of fruits & vegetables
Effects of “unnatural” concentrations of phytochemicals could be harmful – consider study showing cancerpromoting effects of betacarotene supplements
Most studies of supplements do not show same effects as getting the phytochemicals in foods Mediterranean Diet
Chapter 2 Controversy General Characteristics
General Characteristics Low in saturated fat
High in monounsaturated fats (olive oil)
Relatively low in animal protein
High in carbohydrates & fiber
High in antioxidant nutrients & phytochemicals
In some countries, red wine is a “staple” Mediterranean Diet USDA’s Food Pyramid Legumes:
Foods Olives and their Olives and their Oils: Phytochemicals ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/21/2011 for the course PUBH 1517 taught by Professor Paula.goldberg during the Winter '11 term at Life Chiropractic College West.
- Winter '11