PUBH 1517 - (Chapter 11) Controversy & Phytochemicals

PUBH 1517 - (Chapter 11) Controversy &...

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Unformatted text preview: Phytochemicals Phytochemicals Chapter 11 Controversy Classification of Phytochemicals Classification of Phytochemicals Terpenes (powerful antioxidants) Carotenoids (more than 600) Betacarotene Lycopene (twice as powerful as betacarotene in the destruction of free radicals) Limonoids (monoterpenes – found in citrus) Induce enzymes in the liver’s detoxification system Phenols Flavonoids (more than 800) Quercitin Isoflavones phytoestrogens Phytochemical Classification, cont. Phytochemical Classification, cont. Thiols (sulfur­containing phytochemicals) Indoles Dithiothiones Isothiocyanates Allyl sulfides (in garlic) Lignans (also a type of phytoestrogen) Terpenes Terpenes Carotenoids: yellow, orange, & red plant pigments found in tomatoes, parsley, oranges, pink grapefruit, spinach Lycopene found in tomatoes. Study showed that men who ate 10 or more servings of lycopene­rich foods per week had a 45% reduced risk of prostate cancer development Phenols Phenols Flavonoids (blue, blue­red, violet plant pigments): scavenge free radicals and sequester metal ions Quercetin: inhibits oxidation & cytotoxicity of LDL. May also decrease risk of cancer by scavenging activated mutagens & carcinogens. Found in red & yellow onions, kale, broccoli, red grapes, apples, cereals. Phenols, cont. Phenols, cont. Flavonoids, cont. Clinical trial with elderly men showed decreased incidence of coronary heart disease with increased consumption of flavonoids from tea, onions, apples Isoflavones: found in soybeans, soy foods, and other beans. Include phytoestrogens. Phytoestrogens Phytoestrogens Aka phytosterols Weak, non­steroidal versions of estrogens (structurally similar) which function both as weak estrogens and as antiestrogens. Health effects: reduced risk of heart disease, tumor suppression. Asians, many of whom consume soy daily, have decreased incidence of breast, prostate, and other cancers 25 to 50g of soy protein daily decreases LDL cholesterol levels by approx 10% in subjects with hypercholesterolemia Isoflavone content of soy Isoflavone content of soy foods. *Average isoflavone content; amounts vary depending upon variety of soybean used and manufacturing process. Table 12-2. p. 275. Back MENU Forward Thiols Thiols Sulfur­containing compounds found in cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, kale, cabbage) Increase enzymes involved in the detoxification of carcinogens & other foreign compounds Inverse relationship between consumption of cruciferous vegetables and cancer risk, esp for cancers of the lung, stomach, colon, and rectum Allyl Sulfides Allyl Sulfides Found in garlic Increase production of glutathione S transferase (part of liver’s detox system) Inhibit mutagenesis Increase activity of macrophages and T lymphocytes Some evidence that use of garlic in foods improves blood lipids, but results are inconsistent with supplements. Lignans Lignans Focus of research for anticancer and phytoestrogen properties In flaxseeds (75 to 800 more than any other plant food), wheat bran, rye meal, buckwheat, oatmeal, barley Phytochemical Supplements? Phytochemical Supplements? Probably not a good idea, considering the vast array of phytochemicals and the practical impossibility of duplicating the effects of eating abundant amounts of fruits & vegetables Effects of “unnatural” concentrations of phytochemicals could be harmful – consider study showing cancer­promoting effects of betacarotene supplements Most studies of supplements do not show same effects as getting the phytochemicals in foods Mediterranean Diet Mediterranean Diet Chapter 2 Controversy General Characteristics General Characteristics Low in saturated fat High in monounsaturated fats (olive oil) Relatively low in animal protein High in carbohydrates & fiber High in antioxidant nutrients & phytochemicals In some countries, red wine is a “staple” Mediterranean Diet USDA’s Food Pyramid Legumes: Remarkable Foods Olives and their Olives and their Oils: Phytochemicals ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/21/2011 for the course PUBH 1517 taught by Professor Paula.goldberg during the Winter '11 term at Life Chiropractic College West.

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