Unformatted text preview: Consumer Food Consumer Food Concerns Additives
Additives FDA has authority over food ingredients (since 1938)
1958 ammendment to Federal Food, Drug, & Cosmetic Act specified manufacturer’s responsibility of prior proof of safety to receive approval of new additives
Delaney Clause prohibits approval of any food additive found to cause cancer at any level Additives, cont.
Additives, cont. GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) list includes over 600 ingredients (such as salt, sugar, spices) that do not need to be tested for every new food item
GRAS list is regularly reviewed & changed as needed Pesticides
Pesticides EPA approves use & establishes tolerances at both the commodity/field level and the processed food level.
FDA monitors & enforces the tolerances
Manufacturer must supply EPA with data from toxicologic studies & residue data, & show justification of use in terms of economics & adequate food supply.
Approval granted only for the specific commodity application requested. Pesticides, cont.
Pesticides, cont. FDA responsible for surveillance of both imported & domestic foods.
Samples collected as close to the point of production as possible
Market Basket Sample is collected 4 times/year. 234 food items (from different cities across U.S.) are prepared as would be in home, then analyzed for actual levels of pesticides, industrial chemicals, heavy metals, radionucleotides, & essential minerals. Pesticides, cont.
Pesticides, cont. Intakes of eight agesex groups compared with the acceptable daily intakes established by the FAO of the UN. ADI is acceptable daily intake of a chemical that, if ingested over a lifetime, appears to be without appreciable risk
25 years of data show pesticide residue consistently lower than the ADI Antibiotics in Foods
Antibiotics in Foods Antibiotics used in subtherapeutic doses to improve growth in food animals
Institute of Medicine of the NAS reported in 1989 that it was unable to find data implicating subtherapeutic amounts of antibiotics in human illness & was unable to formulate numerical definition of risk.
Except for penicillin & tetracycline, antibiotics added to animal feeds are not prescribed for humans. Hormones in Foods
Hormones in Foods Use of hormones only permitted when residues do not occur in meat & milk as they arrive at the marketplace
Use of diethylstilbestrol was discontinued when more precise analytical techniques enabled identification of extremely small amounts in some meat products. Hormones, cont.
Hormones, cont. Growth hormones from other species are postulated to be inactive in humans
Because BGH is a protein, it is inactivated and digested by enzymes in the stomach. Irradiation
Irradiation Purpose is to enhance safety and quality of food supplies
Reduces potential pathogens This radura logo is the symbol for foods treated
with The Precision of Genetic Engineering How biotechnology techniques can block the formation of specific proteins Normal Tomato Native Tomatorotting gene Tomato-rotting
Tomato Antisense gene No tomato-rotting
enzyme produced Quickly rotting
Tomato Longer lasting
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 11/21/2011 for the course PUBH 1517 taught by Professor Paula.goldberg during the Winter '11 term at Life Chiropractic College West.
- Winter '11