PUBH 1517 - Major Minerals

PUBH 1517 - Major Minerals - Phosphorus Phosphorus 85% in...

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Unformatted text preview: Phosphorus Phosphorus 85% in bones & teeth Many other functions – Buffering salts – Part of DNA & RNA (essential for growth & renewal) – Compounds carry, store, & release energy (ATP, ADP) – Component of phospholipids – Present in some proteins Phosphorus Need & Sources Phosphorus RDA (1998) 700 mg for adult men & women 1250 mg for adolescents Sources Salmon, 3 oz canned 280 mg Milk, 1 cup 235 mg Sirloin steak, 3 oz 208 mg Navy beans, ½ c 143 mg Phosphorus Phosphorus Not difficult to get enough in diet Calcium to phosphorus ratio not as important as once thought Magnesium Magnesium Over half is in bones (serves as “bank” to draw on when needed) Remainder in soft tissue (muscles, heart, liver, etc.) Needed by over 300 enzymes Necessary for release of energy Affects metabolism of K, Ca, Vitamin D Promotes relaxation of muscles Promotes resistance to tooth decay by holding Ca in the enamel Causes of Magnesium Deficiency Causes Inadequate intake – Most people in U.S. only get about ¾ of what is needed Vomiting or diarrhea Alcoholism Protein malnutrition Diuretics Symptoms of Mg Deficiency Symptoms Possibly related to CVD, heart attack, hypertension Hallucinations Overt symptoms rare in normal, healthy people Need & Sources for Mg Need RDA (1998) 420 mg for men age 31 & up 320 mg for women age 31 & up Sources Oysters, 3 oz steamed Black beans, ½ c cooked Spinach, ½ c cooked Bran cereal, 1c Dark chocolate bar 81 mg 60 mg 75 mg 69 mg 47 mg Magnesium Toxicity Magnesium Can occur with abuse of magnesium­containing laxatives (MOM), antacids, & other meds Symptoms/consequences – – – – – – Diarrhea, acid­base imbalance Kidney impairment Lack of coordination Confusion Coma Death from heart failure in extreme cases Sodium Sodium Comprises 40% of the weight of table salt (sodium chloride), so 1 g salt yields 400 mg sodium Chief ion in fluids outside the cells, where helps to maintain volume Helps with acid­base balance Essential to muscle contraction & nerve transmission Maintaining Proper Sodium Levels Maintaining Diet is more likely to be high in Na than low, unless purposefully restricted When abundance is consumed, kidneys excrete excess along with water. Must have sufficient water for sodium to be excreted as needed. Causes of Sodium Depletion Causes Overly restrictive diets Vomiting and/or diarrhea Extremely heavy sweating Diuretic medications Sodium Need & Intakes Sodium Adequate Intake: – Ages 9 to 50: – Ages 51 to 70: – Over 70: Upper Limit 1500 mg/day 1300 mg/day 1200 mg/day – Ages 14 and up: 2300 mg/day Sodium & High Blood Pressure Sodium Controversy as to whether everyone needs to limit sodium intake Some individuals are “salt­sensitive” and some are not More salt­sensitive: those whose parents had HBP, African Americans, all over 50, those with kidney disease DASH study has explored other dietary approaches to hypertension Sodium Intakes of U.S. Adults Sources of Sodium in the U.S. Diet Dietary Sodium Sources Dietary See p. 280 for list of foods with highest sodium content, & p. 281 for content of various foods Processed (especially canned) and fast foods tend to be high in sodium Potassium Potassium Principle positively charged ion inside body cells Roles – Maintaining fluid balance – Maintaining heartbeat Potassium Needs & Sources Potassium Adequate Intake 4700 mg for adults Dietary Sources (richest) Baked potato, whole 477 mg Banana, whole 467 mg Honeydew melon wedge 434 mg Lima beans, ½ c cooked 398 mg Milk, 1 cup 383 mg Risk for Low Potassium Risk Risk increases with higher intake of processed foods Use of diuretic which does not spare potassium Fasting, anorexia Severe diarrhea Excess Potassium Excess Potentially very dangerous, due to effect on heart rhythm Individuals with renal disease must limit to prevent blood level from rising too high Available as potassium chloride, both in pills & salt substitute. Should not use unless get ok from physician. Chloride Chloride Major negative ion in the body Helps maintain fluid, electrolyte, & acid­ base balance Part of hydrochloric acid Main food source is salt Adequate Intake – Ages 9­50: 2300 mg/day 2000 mg/day – Ages 51­70: – Ages 70+: 1800 mg/day Sulfur Sulfur Present in thiamin & all proteins Helps strands of protein assume a functional shape No recommended intake, deficiencies unknown ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/21/2011 for the course PUBH 1517 taught by Professor Paula.goldberg during the Winter '11 term at Life Chiropractic College West.

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