PUBH 1517 - Nutrition As A Science

PUBH 1517 - Nutrition As A Science - True or False? True or...

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Unformatted text preview: True or False? True or False? It is illegal to convey false or misleading information about nutrition in magazine and newspaper articles and on television. Legal Regulation of Legal Regulation of Nutrition Information & Products (by FTC, etc.) Illegal False or misleading info in ads or on product labels & packages Use of U.S. mail system to send or receive payments for fraudulent products Not regulated Articles, books, speeches, pamphlets, broadcasts, websites Motives for Misinformation Motives for Misinformation Profit Personal beliefs & convictions Above motives can affect researchers, media, authors, and health care providers, including nutrition professionals Be a skeptic!!! Evaluate the scientific merit of any nutrition information, in light of source & motives. Nutrition as a Science Nutrition as a Science First vitamin identified in 1897 First protein structure fully described in 1945 Basic facts well­established, but... Still an active, changing, growing body of knowledge, resulting in frequent reports of scientific findings, sometimes conflicting Scientific Method Scientific Method Define problem Formulate hypothesis Collect data Interpret data Generalize findings 4 Types 4 Types of Studies: Epidemiological Study 4 4 Types of Studie s Epidemiological Studies Epidemiological Studies Show correlations between variables Not same as cause/effect Example: – Average Brazilian eats more beans than average U. S. resident. – Incidence of colon cancer may be lower in Brazil. – Does not necessarily mean that beans prevent colon cancer. What are other variables? Other foods in diet? Lifestyle factors? 4 Types 4 Types of Studies: Human Intervention Study Human Intervention Study May be used to compare effectiveness of various diet modifications in lowering serum cholesterol, for example May be used to test effectiveness of supplements in lowering risk of diseases Research Design Research Design Experimental vs. control group Randomization of assignment to groups Groups must be similar with regards to characteristics that may influence results (age, gender, possibly diet, etc) Research Design (cont.) Research Design (cont.) Sample size must be large enough to make sure that chance variation does not influence results. Statistical analysis takes sample size into account in calculation of the significance of a difference between groups Research Design, cont. Research Design, cont. Blind experiment: subjects do not know whether they are receiving the intervention or not – placebo used for control group, if nature of study allows, thus controlling for psychological effects of subject thinking they are receiving the intervention Double blind: neither researchers nor subjects know who is receiving placebo until after data has been collected. Insures objectivity. Single study vs Single study vs Established Facts Replication needed to confirm Similar studies may have conflicting results Conflict could be due to differing method, subjects Reviews published in recognized journals which summarize studies on a particular subject After the study... After the study... Presentation of results may be made at a professional meeting, accompanied by published abstract Article describing study, results, conclusions submitted for review and publication by scientific journal Journal example: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Refereed journals: Review journals examine all available evidence on major topics, research journals report details of the methods, results and conclusions of recently completed experiments. Sources for Science­Based Sources for Science­Based Nutrition Information Textbooks used for “credit” courses taught by degreed nutrition professionals at accredited colleges and universities Government publications based on scientific consensus Qualified nutrition professionals (including articles or presentations) Qualified Nutrition Qualified Nutrition Professionals Registered Dietitians B.S. degree based on curriculum approved by American Dietetic Association Post­grad or concurrent training program approved by ADA National Exam Continuing education Licensed Dietitians/Nutritionists Requirements by state Beware Beware Correspondence degrees Diploma mills Bogus “accrediting” agencies Give appearance of good credentials without the education Charlie displays his professional credentials. What Dietitians Do What Dietitians Do Assess nutritional status wt, ht, lab values, eating pattern, nutrients from supplements Determine nutrient requirements based on age, gender, size, health, presence of factors that increase needs or limit tolerance Are needs being met at present? If not, develop & implement plan to meet needs What Dietitians Do What Dietitians Do (continued) Involve client in developing plan Provide education needed to implement the plan (client, family) Document assessment, plan, implementation of plan, and outcomes in the medical record or on consultation report for private practice Communicate verbally with healthcare team as needed Medical Nutrition Therapy Medical Nutrition Therapy Definition Nutrition services used in the treatment of injury, illness, or other conditions; includes assessment of nutrition status and dietary intake, & corrective applications of diet, counseling, & other nutrition services (a billable service for specific dx) Definitions Definitions Nutrition: the study of nutrients in foods & in the body. Sometimes also the study of human behaviors related to food. Nutrients: components of food that are indispensable to the body’s functioning. Malnutrition: any condition caused by deficient or excess energy or nutrient intake or by an imbalance of nutrients. Elements in the Nutrients Calorie Values of Energy Calorie Values of Energy Nutrients Energy Nutrient Energy Carbohydrate 4 cal/g Fat (lipid) 9 cal/g Protein 4 cal/g Alcohol has calories, too. Alcohol has calories, too. Alcohol (Ethanol) *Alcohol 7 cal/g is not classified as a nutrient. Materials of Food and the Human Body Materials of Food and the Human Body Other Food Components Other Food Components Nonnutrients: a term used in this course to mean compounds other than the six nutrients that are present in foods. Phytochemicals: nonnutrient compounds in plant­derived foods that have biological activity in the body. Examples include pigments, flavor components, toxins, & compounds with drug effects. Characteristics of a Characteristics of a Nutritious Diet Adequacy: provides all essential nutrients. Balance: includes a number of types of foods in proper proportion to each other. Variety: as opposed to same foods day after day. Includes a wide range of foods from each group. Moderation: avoids excessive amounts of any one thing, especially “empty” calories Nutritious Diet, cont. Nutritious Diet, cont. Appropriate calories: meets energy needs, but does not exceed them. Challenge: Meet nutrient needs without exceeding energy needs. Concept: Nutrient density How the experts judge which foods are most nutritious. Factors Influencing Food Factors Influencing Food Choices Advertising Availability Convenience Economy Emotional comfort Ethnic heritage Habit Personal preference Positive associations Region Social pressure Values or beliefs Nutritional Factors Nutritional Factors in Food Choices Weight concerns Nutritional value Phytochemicals with health effects In­Class Assignment In­Class Assignment Rate each food choice factor on a scale of 1 to 5, with 5 being most influential for you Briefly describe your personal approach to nutrition (examples: vegetarian, avoid fat, limit carbohydrates, take specific supplements) and why you have adopted this approach Describe your own general objectives for this course ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/21/2011 for the course PUBH 1517 taught by Professor Paula.goldberg during the Winter '11 term at Life Chiropractic College West.

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