PUBH 1517 - Nutrition In Infancy

PUBH 1517 - Nutrition In Infancy - NutritioninInfancy...

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Nutrition in Infancy Nutrition in Infancy
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WIC   Supplemental Food Program Eligibility based on health risks, income, and whether pregnant, breastfeeding, or child under 5 (or 6?) years of age. Provides vouchers for milk, cheese, eggs, cereals, juice, dried beans, peanut butter For formula-fed infants, provides vouchers for infant formula. For infants over 6 months, includes vouchers for infant cereal & juice Includes health risk screenings at least every six months (to re-assess eligibility).
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Health Benefits of Breastfeeding Very digestible protein of optimal quality Immune factors Interfere with growth of harmful bacteria in digestive tract Colostrum (see p. 449, margin) contains antibodies & white cells from the mother Protection against middle ear infection & respiratory illness Reduces chances of allergy development Provides hormones which stimulate development of infant’s digestive tract
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Nutrients in Breast Milk Composition adjusts to need of infant throughout  lactation, including adjustments for preterm infant Proteins in breast milk Largely alpha-lactalbumin Lactoferrin: iron-gathering compound that enhances absorption, yet prevents utilization by bacteria. Kills some bacteria.
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Vitamins in Breastmilk Vitamin content is ample as long as mother is  well-nourished, with exception of vitamin D Vitamin D supplementation recommended for  breastfed infants who don’t get sufficient  exposure to sunlight, or are dark-skinned
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Minerals in Breast Milk Limited amount of iron, but highly absorbable Supplemental iron needed by around 4 months of age Low in sodium (but adequate) Zinc absorbed better than from cow’s milk due to  presence of zinc-binding protein
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Breastfeeding Success Hospital policies can make a big difference in successful  establishment of lactation Ideally, infant should be breastfed soon after birth and “on  demand” thereafter.  Best if baby can stay in room with mother  most of time. Some types of oral contraceptives (combination of estrogen &  progestin) not recommended while breastfeeding – esp. in first 6 to  10 weeks – may suppress lactation.
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