PUBH 1517 - Water Soluble Vitamins

PUBH 1517 - Water Soluble Vitamins - Water Soluble Vitamins...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Water Soluble Vitamins Vitamins General Characteristics General of Water-Soluble Vitamins Can be leached out of foods by water Can used for washing or cooking used Excesses are excreted in the urine Toxicity only occurs with extreme levels of Toxicity supplementation supplementation General Roles of B Vitamins General Act as part of Act coenzymes (small molecule coenzymes that combines with an enzyme to make it active) active) Enzymes which require coenzymes cannot Enzymes perform their function without the coenzyme – like a car without wheels like Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, & Thiamin, biotin all participate in the release of energy from the energy nutrients from Some Roles of B Vitamins in Metabolism Thiamin (B1) Thiamin Part of coenzyme TPP (thiamin pyrophosphate), Part which plays critical role in energy metabolism which Important in nerve processes & response of Important muscles to nerves muscles Classic deficiency: Beriberi First observed in East Asia when custom of rice First polishing (removing brown coat) became widespread polishing Cause identified just before 1900 by physician Cause working at a prison – observed similar symptoms (stiffness & weakness) in the chickens fed leftovers (stiffness Thiamin Thiamin Deficiency disease Beriberi • Wet, with edema • Dry, with muscle wasting Deficiency symptoms Enlarged heart, cardiac failure Muscular weakness Apathy, poor short-term memory, Apathy, confusion, irritability confusion, Anorexia, weight loss Toxicity symptoms: none reported Thiamin Deficiency, cont. Thiamin Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome Severe form of deficiency caused by abuse of Severe alcohol (impairs thiamine absorption & hastens excretion) hastens Symptoms of mental confusion, disorientation, Symptoms loss of memory, jerky eye movements, staggering gait are almost indistinguishable from symptoms of intoxication, but respond quickly to thiamin injection Thiamine Need & Sources Thiamine RDA (1998) 1.2 mg for adult males 1.1 mg for adult females Dietary Sources Pork chop, 3 oz Sunflower seeds, 2 Tbsp Enriched dry cereal ¾ c Green peas, ½ c Green Watermelon, 1 wedge .98 mg .41 mg .31 mg .23 mg .23 .23 mg Riboflavin (B2) Riboflavin Also part of coenzymes important in Also energy metabolism (FAD, FMN) energy Is heat, oxidation, and acid stable Sparingly soluble in water Destroyed by ultraviolet light and Destroyed irradiation irradiation Destroyed by alkaline environment (as in Destroyed adding baking soda to vegetables) adding Yellow color Riboflavin Riboflavin Riboflavin Needs & Sources Riboflavin RDA (1998) Adult females Adult Adult males 1.1 mg 1.1 1.3 mg Dietary Sources Beef liver, 3 oz Milk, 1c Yogurt, 1c Enriched cereal Spinach, ½ c 3.5 mg 0.4 mg 0.51 mg 0.35 mg 0.17 mg Riboflavin Riboflavin Deficiency disease: ariboflavinosis Deficiency symptoms Inflamed eyelids and sensitivity to light, Inflamed reddening of cornea reddening Sore throat Cracks and redness at corners of mouth Cracks (cheilosis) (cheilosis) Painful, smooth, purplish red tongue Inflammation characterized by skin lesions Inflammation covered with greasy scales covered Toxicity symptoms: none reported Niacin Niacin Other names Nicotinic acid Nicotinamide Niacinamide Vitamin B3 Precursor: dietary tryptophan 1998 RDA Men: 16 mg NE/day Women: 14 mg NE/day Upper level for adults: 35 mg/day Niacin Need and Sources Niacin RDA (1998) Adult males Adult females 16 mg NE 14 mg NE Sources Chicken breast, 3 oz 10.8 mg Tuna, 3 oz, in water 8.1 mg Enriched cereal, ¾ c 4.1 mg Baked potato, 1 whole 3.3 mg Niacin from Tryptophan Niacin Tryptophan (an amino acid) can be Tryptophan converted to niacin in the body converted Niacin content of foods expressed as Niacin niacin equivalents, taking into account the amount of tryptophan in the diet. amount Niacin Deficiency Niacin Pellagra (niacin deficiency disease) first Pellagra appeared in Europe in 1700s when corn from the New World became widely accepted as a staple food accepted Pellagra was widespread in the U.S. (esp Pellagra the south and midwest) in the early 20th the century century Historically, Pellagra associated with lack Historically, of tryptophan in diet Niacin Deficiency Symptoms Niacin Inflamed, swollen, smooth bright red or Inflamed, black tongue black Depression, apathy, fatigue, loss of Depression, memory, headache memory, Diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting Flaky skin rash, bilateral and symmetrical Flaky on areas exposed to sunlight Pellagra Pellagra Clinical Uses Large doses (> 10X RDA) sometimes Large included as part of treatment to combat atherosclerosis atherosclerosis Such doses dilate skin capillaries, Such resulting in perceptible tingling that can be painful (niacin flush) painful Niacin Toxicity Symptoms Niacin Painful flush, hives, and rash (“niacin Painful flush”) flush”) Excessive sweating Blurred vision Liver damage, impaired glucose tolerance Folate Folate Aka folacin, folic acid, pteroylglutamic acid Part of coenzymes THF (tetrahydrofolate) Part and DHF (dihydrofolate) used in DNA synthesis and therefore important in new cell formation cell Cells which have fastest turnover are most Cells vulnerable to deficiency vulnerable blood cells digestive tract cells Folate Needs Folate RDA (1998) Adult men & women: 400 ug DFE Pregnant women: 600 ug DFE DFE = dietary folate equivalent, and is DFE same as 1 ug folate from a natural source same 1 ug synthetic folate = 1.7 ug DFE Bioavailability of Folate Bioavailability Ranges from 25 to 50% in food sources Varies depending on form of folate (150 Varies different forms) in the food different Some foods, such as legumes & orange Some juice, contain factors which may interfere with absorption with Synthetic form has highest availability Flour & cereals enriched with synthetic Flour form (folate enrichment started in 1996) form Folate Folate Dietary Sources of Folate Dietary As much as half folate content of a food can be As destroyed by oxidation during storage or heat during cooking during Beef liver, 3 oz 185 ug Lentils, 1/2 c 180 ug Pinto beans, 1/2c 146 ug Asparagus, 1/2 c 127 ug Spinach, 1c raw 113 ug Beets, 1/2 c 46 ug Folate Deficiency Folate Causes macrocytic/megaloblastic anemia Causes (also caused by B12 deficiency) (also Associated with neural tube defects when Associated deficiency is present in early pregnancy deficiency Other symptoms: digestive problems, Other immune suppression, smooth red tongue, irritability, confusion, weakness, fatigue, headache headache Folate Folate Neural tube defects Spina bifida Other Folate Issues Other Supplementation with folate can mask B12 Supplementation deficiency, possibly resulting in delay of diagnosis and consequent irreversible nerve damage nerve Highly interactive with medications antacids, aspirin can interfere with utilization antacids, of folate if taken frequently of also interacts with oral contraceptives and also anticonvulsants anticonvulsants Pernicious Anemia Normal Red Blood Cells Pernicious Anemia Folate Folate Vitamin B12: In Summary Vitamin Other names: cobalamin (and related Other forms) forms) Chief functions in the body Part of coenzymes methylcobalamin and Part deoxyadenosylcobalamin used in new cell synthesis synthesis Helps to maintain nerve cells Reforms folate coenzyme Helps to break down some fatty acids and Helps amino acids amino B12 Absorption B12 Absorption requires intrinsic factor, made by Absorption intrinsic made stomach, where it attaches to the vitamin in the presence of stomach acid presence Absorption occurs in small intestine Some have genetic defect which results in Some insufficient intrinsic factor beginning in midinsufficient adulthood Absorption may decline with age also Stomach injury may limit absorption B12 Toxicity symptoms: none reported Toxicity Deficiency symptoms Anemia (large-cell type, “pernicious”) Fatigue, degeneration of peripheral nerves Fatigue, progressing to paralysis progressing If caused by lack of intrinsic factor, If injections of B12 are needed to correct the deficiency deficiency B12 Deficiency, cont. B12 May be common in the elderly, presenting May with following symptoms: with lemon-yellow tint from anemia & jaundice smooth, beefy red tongue neurologic disorders May cause psychiatric symptoms such as May impaired mentation & depression impaired B12 Needs and Sources B12 RDA (1998): 2.4 ug for males & females, ages 14 and up 2.6 ug in pregnancy, 2.8 ug in lactation Occurs naturally only in animal products Clams, 3 oz canned 84 ug Liver, beef, 3.5 oz 71 ug Tuna, lt, in H20, 3 oz 2.54 ug Beef, 3.5 oz lean 2.35 ug Beef, Milk, 2%, 1c .89 ug Vitamin B12 Storage Vitamin Around 2000 ug stored in the body, mostly Around in the liver, in well-nourished individuals in Means stores would last a good while Means without B12 intake, so deficiency symptoms might not appear for several years years Source note: some fermented plant some products (sea vegetables) may be good sources, but not all sources, Vitamin B6 Vitamin Aka pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine Chief functions in the body Part of coenzymes PLP (pyridoxal phosphate) Part and PMP (pyridoxamine phosphate) used in amino acid and fatty acid metabolism amino Helps to convert tryptophan to niacin and to Helps serotonin serotonin Helps to make red blood cells B6 Needs B6 RDA (1998) Males & females age 19 to 50: 1.3 mg Males age 51 & over: 1.7 mg Males 1.7 Females age 51 & over: 1.5 mg Females 1.5 Pregnant women 1.9 mg Lactating women 2.0 mg General B6 Sources General Meats, fish, poultry Potatoes, legumes, noncitrus fruits Fortified cereals Liver Soy products Sources of Vitamin B6 Sources Beef liver, 3 oz 1.2 mg Baked potato, 1 whole 0.7 mg Banana, 1 whole 0.68 mg Chicken breast, 3 oz 0.51 mg Sweet potato , 1/2 c 0.24 mg Spinach, cooked, 1/2 c 0.22 mg B6 Deficiency B6 General symptoms due to diverse functions Weakness, irritability, insomnia Greasy dermatitis, rashes Anemia (microcytic) Smooth tongue Abnormal brain wave pattern, convulsions, Abnormal muscle twitching muscle Kidney stones Weakened immune response Possibly greater risk of heart disease B6 Toxicity B6 Occurred in women who took more than 2 grams Occurred grams of B6 daily for 2 months or more (RDA is < 2 mg) mg) Symptoms Numb feet & hands, numb mouth in some Numb Difficulty walking, loss of reflexes, weakness Fatigue, irritability, depression Skin lesions After stopping supplements, symptoms After eventually reversed eventually Upper limit for adults: 100 mg/day Biotin Biotin 1998 adequate intake (AI) Adults: 30 µg/day Adults: Chief functions in the body Part of a coenzyme used in energy Part metabolism, fat synthesis, amino acid metabolism, and glycogen synthesis metabolism, Significant sources Widespread in foods Organ meats, egg yolks, soybeans, fish, Organ whole grains whole Also produced by GI bacteria Biotin Biotin Deficiency symptoms Depression, lethargy, hallucinations, numb Depression, or tingling sensation in the arms and legs or Red, scaly rash around the eyes, nose, Red, and mouth and Hair loss Toxicity symptoms: none reported Pantothenic Acid Pantothenic 1998 adequate intake (AI) Adults: 5 mg/day Chief functions in the body Part of coenzyme A, used in energy Part metabolism metabolism Significant sources Widespread in foods Organ meats, mushrooms, avocados, Organ broccoli, whole grains broccoli, Easily destroyed by food processing Pantothenic Acid Pantothenic Deficiency symptoms Vomiting, nausea, stomach cramps Insomnia, fatigue, depression, irritability, Insomnia, restlessness, apathy restlessness, Hypoglycemia, increased sensitivity to Hypoglycemia, insulin insulin Toxicity symptoms: none reported Non-B Vitamins Non-B Choline Vitamin C Vitamin Chief functions in the body Collagen synthesis • Strengthens blood vessel walls, forms scar Strengthens tissue, provides matrix for bone growth tissue, Antioxidant Thyroxin synthesis Amino acid metabolism Strengthens resistance to infection Helps in absorption of iron Vitamin C Vitamin Vitamin C Vitamin Other name: ascorbic acid 2000 RDA Men: 90 mg/day Women: 75 mg/day Smokers: + 35 mg/day Upper level for adults: 2000 Upper mg/day mg/day Vitamin C Vitamin Significant sources Citrus fruits Cabbage-type vegetables, dark green Cabbage-type vegetables (such as bell peppers and broccoli) broccoli) Cantaloupe, strawberries Lettuce, tomatoes, potatoes Papayas, mangoes Easily destroyed by heat and oxygen Vitamin C Vitamin Deficiency disease: scurvy Deficiency symptoms Anemia (small-cell type) Atherosclerotic plaques Pinpoint hemorrhages, bone fragility, joint Pinpoint pain pain Poor wound healing, frequent infections, Poor bleeding gums, loosened teeth bleeding Muscle degeneration and pain, hysteria, Muscle depression, rough skin, blotchy bruises depression, Signs of Scurvy in the mouth Vitamin C Vitamin Toxicity symptoms Nausea, abdominal cramps, diarrhea Headache, fatigue, insomnia Hot flashes, rashes Interference with medical tests, Interference aggravation of gout symptoms, urinary tract problems, kidney stones tract Side Effects of High Doses of Vitamin C High Alteration of insulin response to CHO Nausea, abdominal cramps, excessive Nausea, gas, diarrhea gas, Obscures results of urine tests to detect Obscures diabetes diabetes False negative test for blood in stool In vitro (test tube), high concentrations of In vitamin C act as a prooxidant pro Vitamin C & Colds Vitamin No study has conclusively proved that vitamin C No can prevent colds or reduce their severity can Re-evaluation of an earlier major review of Re-evaluation vitamin C studies suggests that supplements up to 1 gram per day may shorten duration by one day and reduce severity of symptoms by 23% day Blood histamine levels decreased in one study Blood with doses of 2 g per day for 2 weeks with Other Compounds Other Nonessential (body makes) Carnitine Inositol Lipoic acid PABA & Bioflavonoids Coenzyme Q (ubiquinone) ...
View Full Document

Ask a homework question - tutors are online