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PUBH 1517 Basic Nutrition - Exam II Review 2

PUBH 1517 Basic Nutrition - Exam II Review 2 - VITAMINS 1...

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VITAMINS 1. General difference between fat soluble and water soluble vitamins Water-Soluble Vitamins 1. Can be leached out of foods by water used for washing or cooking 2. Excesses are excreted in the urine 3. Toxicity only occurs with extreme levels of supplementation Fat Soluble Definition: essential, noncaloric nutrients, needed in tiny amounts in the diet Classes A,D, E, K 2. Chemical Names for each vitamin and names of coenzyme forms of B vitamins A : Retinol, Retinal, Retinoic acid Deficiencies = accumulation of the protein keratin in the cornea (keratinization), causing cloudiness of vision and eventual blindness if deficiency not corrected. Deficiency symptoms = Night blindness initially, xeropthalmia later Impaired immunocompetence Follicular hyperkeratosis B1 : Thiamin Coenzyme TPP (thiamin pyrophosphate) Deficiency = Beriberi (Wet, with edema Dry, with muscle wasting ) Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (caused by abuse of alcohol) Deficiency symptoms = Enlarged heart, cardiac failure Muscular weakness Apathy, poor short-term memory, confusion, irritability Anorexia, weight loss B2 : Riboflavin (B2) Part of coenzymes important in energy metabolism (FAD, FMN) Deficiency = ariboflavinosis Deficiency symptoms = Inflamed eyelids and sensitivity to light, reddening of cornea Sore throat Cracks and redness at corners of mouth (cheilosis) Painful, smooth, purplish red tongue Inflammation characterized by skin lesions covered with greasy scales B3: Niacin: Nicotinic acid, Nicotinamide, Niacinamide, Precursor: dietary tryptophan Deficiency = Pellagra Deficiency symptoms = Inflamed, swollen, smooth bright red or black tongue Depression, apathy, fatigue, loss of memory, headache Diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting Flaky skin rash, bilateral and symmetrical on areas exposed to sunlight B6: pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine Part of coenzymes PLP (pyridoxal phosphate) and PMP (pyridoxamine phosphate) used in amino acid and fatty acid metabolism B12: Cobalamin (and related forms) Part of coenzymes methylcobalamin and deoxyadenosylcobalamin used in new cell synthesis Biotin C : ascorbic acid Choline
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D : Calciferol Ultraviolet light on skin converts 7-dehydro-cholesterol to cholecalciferol, the provitamin form (D3) Side-chain reaction in liver yields 25-hydroxycholecalciferol Final activation step in kidney, yielding 1,25-dehyroxyvitamin D3 Activation regulated by PTH, which is secreted in response to low plasma calcium level Deficiency = Rickets in children: impaired mineralization of growing bones results in
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PUBH 1517 Basic Nutrition - Exam II Review 2 - VITAMINS 1...

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