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Unformatted text preview: VITAMINS General differences between fat-soluble and water soluble vitamins (cooking losses, absorption from digestive tract, storage in the body, excretion of excess.) Water soluble: Can be leached out of foods by water used for washing or cooking, excess is excreted in the urine, toxicity only caused by extreme supplementation. FYI: As much as half folate content of a food can be destroyed by oxidation during storage or heat during cooking Know which vitamins are fat soluble, which are water soluble Fat soluble vitamins: A, D, E, and K Water soluble vitamins: B, C (all others) Know chemical names for each vitamin, and names of coenzyme forms of the B vitamins. Vitamin B1 = Thiamin Coenzyme form = TPP Thiamin pyrophosphate (plays critical role in energy metabolism) Vitamin B2 = Riboflavin Coenzyme form = (FAD, FMN) which are important in energy metabolism Vitamin B3 = Niacin aka Nicotinamide, nicotinic acid Coenzyme form = part of NAD and NADPH Vitamin B6 = Pyridoxine, pyrodixal, pyridoxamine Coenzyme form = Vitamin B9 = Folate aka Folacin or folic acid Coenzyme form = acts as part of a coenzyme needed to synthesize DNA for all new cells Vitamin B12 = cobalamin, cyanocobalamin, hydroxycobalamin Coenzyme form = qadenosylcobalamin, methylcobalamin, which play important roles in metabolism of propionate, amino acids, & single carbons : Cofactor for several enzymes active in metabolism of energy nutrients Pantothenic Acid = Component of a key coenzyme which Pantothenic Acid = Component of a key coenzyme which makes possible the release of energy from energy nutrients. makes possible the release of energy from energy nutrients. Participates in over 100 different steps in synthesis of lipids, Participates in over 100 different steps in synthesis of lipids, neurotransmitters, steroid hormones, and hemoglobin. neurotransmitters, steroid hormones, and hemoglobin. Widespread in foods Widespread in foods Be able to match the name of a deficiency disease to the vitamin Know richest sources of each of the major vitamins, both in terms of food groups and specific foods (other than liver.) RDA (1998) for Thiamin (Vitamin B1) 1.2 mg for adult males 1.1 mg for adult females Dietary Sources for Thiamin (Vitamin B1) Pork chop, 3 oz .98 mg Sunflower seeds, 2 Tbsp .41 mg Enriched dry cereal c .31 mg Green peas, c .23 mg Watermelon, 1 wedge .23 mg RDA (1998) for Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) Adult females 1.3 mg Adult males 1.7 mg Dietary Sources for Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) Beef liver, 3 oz 3.5 mg Milk, 1c 0.4 mg Yogurt, 1c 0.51 mg Enriched cereal 0.35 mg Spinach, c 0.17 mg RDA (1998) for Niacin (Vitamin B3) Adult males 16 mg NE Adult females 14 mg NE Dietary Sources for Niacin (Vitamin B3) Chicken breast, 3 oz 10.8 mg Tuna, 3 oz, in water 8.1 mg Enriched cereal, c 4.1 mg Baked potato, 1 whole 3.3 mg RDA (1998) for Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) Males & females age 19 to 50: 1.3 mg Males age 51 & over: 1.7 mg Females age 51 & over: 1.5 mg Pregnant women 1.9 mg Lactating women...
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This note was uploaded on 11/21/2011 for the course PUBH 1517 taught by Professor Paula.goldberg during the Winter '11 term at Life Chiropractic College West.
- Winter '11