PUBH 1517 Basic Nutrition - Exam II Study Guide Answers

PUBH 1517 Basic Nutrition - Exam II Study Guide Answers -...

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WEIGHT MANAGEMENT 1. Calories in a pound of body fat + how to use that info to predict fat loss or gain Traditional R.D. Approach to Weight Loss 1 .1 pound fat = 3500 calories (kcals) 2. To lose 1 lb. fat per week, create calorie deficit of 500 calories (kcals) per day 3. Best not to go below 1200 kcals/day, in order to be sure nutrient needs are met. 4. % of overweight people who have actually used this approach is probably pretty small. Most end up using a “one size fits all” approach, and M.D.s tend to perpetuate this 5. How effective are Typical “Treatments”? 1. Initial goal of weight loss is often achieved, but long-term maintenance of that loss is the most difficult goal to reach. 2. Only 5% manage to keep from re-gaining at least some of lost weight by the end of 5 years, based on available data. 2. Definitions Hunger: 1. Physiological need to eat, experienced as drive to obtain food esp. the hypothalamus 3. Neuropeptide Y is a strong appetite stimulant, esp for carbohydrate-rich foods Appetite 1. Appetite could be defined as the psychological desire to eat 2. Appetite is more of a learned phenomenon 3. Endorphins are released on seeing, smelling, or tasting delicious food – believed to enhance drive to eat or continue eating 4. Social factors can influence appetite Satiation: Perception of fullness that builds throughout a meal, eventually causing a person to stop eating. Natural determinant of how much food is consumed at one sitting. Satiety: Perception of fullness that lingers in the hours after a meal & inhibits eating until the next mealtime. Natural determinant of time between meals. 3. How does NPY affect the desire to eat? Does it seem to be assoc’d w. specific food cravings? App stimulant Hungry for Carbs Suppressed by Leptin 4. % of Daily energy needed of an average person needed for basal metabolism AND Factors that influence Basal metabolic rate, how they’re related. 1. Multiply BMR calories by activity factor:
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Sedentary: 1.25 - 1.4 male, 1.25 -1.35 female Light activity:1.5 - 1.7 male, 1.4 - 1.6 female Moderate: 1.65 - 1.8 male, 1.5 - 1.7 female Heavy: 1.9 - 2.2 male, 1.8 to 2.0 female Exceptional: 2.3 - 2.45 male, 2.1 - 2.3 female 2. When you multiply by 1.25 to get total energy needs, it means that energy needed for activity is 25% of what is needed for basal metabolism. Therefore total need is 1.25 X BMR. 5. % Body Fat considered normal for each gender Male: 12-20% Female: 20-30% - Young men not over 22% - Older men not over 25% - Young women not over 32 % - Older women not over 35% 6. How does fat distribution affect risks for chronic disease “Central Obesity” 1. Appears to be especially dangerous with regard to risk of diabetes, stroke, hypertension, & coronary artery disease - Perhaps because visceral fat is more readily released into bloodstream & contributes to LDL 2. Smokers, moderate to heavy alcohol users, men, and postmenopausal women
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PUBH 1517 Basic Nutrition - Exam II Study Guide Answers -...

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