PUBH 1517 Basic Nutrition - FINAL EXAM REVIEW (with Answers)

PUBH 1517 Basic Nutrition - FINAL EXAM REVIEW (with...

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Unformatted text preview: PEER; ll? hinal Exam Study t’i’Euitie3 Comprehensiye Portion The RDAS are set at levels which meet the needs of What percent of what percent of healthy individuals? = recommended dietary allowance for healthy people RDA set well ahove the EAR. flovers about 98% oil“ the population W hat is the meaning of nutrient density? Measure of the nutrients a food provides relative to the energy it pros/idea The mere nutrients and the fewer heals? the higher the nutrient density What are the characteristics of a food group plan like the USDA Pyramid? «(food are grouped according to similar nutrient content, amount of food needed from each group daily is specified, and it is a useful tool for diet planning} Dairy — 3 cups F suit — .7; cups Meat — 505 or Grain — eon Veggies oz Enrichment of refined flour includes flour in products such as pasta, is required for all refined products that cross state lines, and adds which vitamins in amounts that exceed the original levels in whole Wheat flour? e Relate rant/s Thiamin — Willi/q» Rihollavin liltlfi/a Niacin 98% iron — 83% Zinc 36% Fiber 24% Magnesium 23% t?) 63 0 (D Q 6) QB What is the purpose of the bicarbonate in pancreatic juice? Neutralize aeieiie thyme i‘rern the duodenal walls Sorhitol, or any sugar alcohol) can cause diarrhea when consumed in excess. Coconut and palm oils actually contain a higher percentage of saturated fatty acids than. dairy or beef fat. Chylomicrons are the lipoproteins that transport triglycerides and fat soluble vitamins from the digestive tract into the lymph and eventually into the bloodstream. The lipoproteins which contain the highest percentage of cholesterol are the low density lipoproteins (LDL). Sulfur is a component of some amino acids, and therefore found in most proteins. Excess dietary protein is NOT stored as protein. The amino acids are deaminated, and the remaining portion is either used for energy or converted to fat. Lean body mass is the chief determinant of metabolic rate in a healthy person. ~ Lipoprotein lipase is the enzyme which enables fat to enter fat cells for storage. Leptin is produced by adipose tissue. The more fat a person has, the more leptin they make, resulting in higher blood levels. Normally, elevated leptin would decrease the appetite and increase metabolic rate, to lead to a reduction in fat, ln obese individuals, however, the cells appear to be less responsive to leptin and therefore appetite is NOT decreased as would be expected. The mill: group provides a large percentage of the riboflavin in the US. diet. Pantothenic acid is the vitamin that forms a part of coenzyme A. it is rare for a person to reach toxic levels of Vitamin A without taking vitamin A supplements. Deep orange foods are excellent sources of beta carotene, which is a precursor of vitamin A, Examples of such foods are carrots, sweet potatoes, and pumpkin. The calcium in spinach has a very low hioavailability due to the oxalic acid in spinach, which binds the calcium and prevents its absorption. food labels give us information on the percent Daily Value of a nutrient in a serving of that food. The Daily Values are based on the l968 Thromhoxanes are synthesized as part of the inflammatory process. They are synthesized from polyunsaturated fatty acids (either omega 3 or omega 6) which are cleaved from cell membranes. Protein Quality is determined hy the quantity and proportion of essential amino acids in that protein The 2005 Dietary Guidelines recommend that at least half of your daily servings of grain should be whole grains. ’ The current USDA Food Guide and the Dietary Guidelines recommend that everyone should consume a minimum of 3 cups of mill: (or equivalent amounts of dairy products) daily. MAJOR MINERALS Know the primaty functions of chloride, potassium, and magnesium o — needed by over 300 enzymes, necessary for release of energy, affects metabolism of K, Ca, Vit D, promotes relaxation of muscles, promotes resistance to tooth decay by holding Ca in the enamel 0 — principle positively charged ion inside body cells, maintains fluid blance, maintains heaItbeat g: — major negative ion in body, helps maintain fluid, electrolyte, and acid- base balance, main food source is salt Where does most of the come from? (natural sodium content, salt What typically causes a potassium deficiency? 0 Higher intake of processed foods, diuretic, fasting, anorexia, severe diarrhea What does the P stand for in A T P ? o Phosphate How does ' major minerals in the body? for adult men and women g for adolescents gher than other major minerals in the body compare with the amounts of other Fm which imnet'a/s‘ do we tent? to have intakes below the RDA, (C’fi’fl’ which minerals is if not HS’lILlllj' difficult to meet the {LU/l 3" 4» Intakes below RDA — a Intakes not difficult to meet RDA -— Sodium Which energy nutrient usually contains sulfiir? o Thiamin and all proteins TRACE MINERALS Which factors enhance the iron? 0 o MFP factor (meat, fish, poultry) 0 Vitamin C (can triple non-heme) o Citric, lactic, and HCl acids tea and which factor reduce the absorption of 0 Sugars e Rednee o Tannins in tee, coffee (esp black tea} 0 Ca and P in milk 0 Phytates 8; tannins in whole grains 0 Qxalates, EDTA l/Wiai percentage ofdieiaiy iron is usually absorlyed by a nonapregmiiir adult who? is not iron defieieiir? lG% absorption Wliicli age and gender group in fire US is least susceptible :0 iron: deficiency? 9 Men age 19 & up e Women over 50 l/Wieii an iron deficiency begins io develop, what lab value can detect ilze deficiency before anemia develops? at lii’lasnia ferritiri is a sensitive indicator of iron stores, with values < 25 ug/L indicating negative balance How are red blood cells different from the norm when a pt lies iron-def anemia? Cells are iiepleten‘l el‘ oxygen, causing low blood hemoglobin and limiting energy metabolism Email pale eeils Whiekfooel group liszielb/ lies iron added to if in the US? e Enriched cereals and grains Wire: are the symptoms ofzine deficiency? is lmpairs digestion, causing diarrhea impairs immune response impairs thyroid function Slows wound healing Decreases appetite impairs taste sensitivity Reduces activity and attention span in lab animals @®@®®® Wliichfood groups provide the mos! reliable sources ofa’ieiaiy Zinc? @ Systers, crabmeat, beef, soybeans, enriched cereal, yogurt The synthesis of thyroxiii is iiieiiiily dependent on which mineral? 2’9 lesiine Why mith cow ’s milk contain iodine? @ it is used as a disinfectant for milking equipment What is goiter and how is it related to iodine? e Goiter = enlarged thyroid gland when there is an iodine deficiency What is crei‘inism and how is it” related to iodine? e Cretinism = extreme mental retardation e @ccurs in children of deficient pregnant women Wiclifiioois are naturally rich sources of iodine? lodized salt, seafood, baked products, milk Which ireice mineral has afimciion similar to Vii E? e Copper What is the relationship heiweeii copper one" hemoglobin? e Vital role in forming hemoglobin and collagen 69 Without it, can impair blood flow and disrupts metabolism How doesfliioriele l‘edé'iCE tooth decoy? Can replace hydronyl portion of hydronyapatite, making teeth more resistant to decay as well as larger and more perfectly formed l/Wieii is the target level (iffiufll‘lde concentration when/fluoride is added to public water supplies? @ ll part per million l/Vitliouifliioritioie water, can our diets reliably supply the amount ofifltioride needed to provide Cl protecnfiie ejf/fecifor teeth? a Yes: hut tooth decay is very high without fluoridation What is the chieflmownfimction of chromium? e Needed for proper insulin action to prevent diabetes-like condition 0 Found in complexes with other compounds in foods — “glucose tolerance factor” C obolz‘ is part ofwliicli B vitamin? Vitamin 312 Under what circumstances would it NOT be appropriate for a mother to breastfeed? if mother has tested positive for Hill lf mother has a serious communicable disease, such as tuberculosis or hepatitis When mother consumes alcohol W hen mother must take medication that is known to adversely affect her infant 0 (E) 62) 65 Which nutrz‘efit level in breast iiiiik is too low to meet an infants total need? 69 Vitamin D — need supplementation What is colostrum? e Colostrum = contains antibodies & white cells from the mother e P 449, margin Writ is tire name of tire chief protein in humor? breast milk? a Alpiianiactalburnin Wirich component of breast milk binds iron onei’prevents iifrom supporting the growth of hamrfui bacteria in the iiy‘emt ’s intestine? s Lactoferrin — iron—gathering compound that enhances absorption, yet prevents utilization by bacteria. Kills some bacteria. sutitien large weight gain in pregnancy is a warning sign for what pregnancy comoiication? May increase risk of neural tube defects What are the other symptoms of time same compiication? increased incidence of gestational diabetes, hypertension, & infections atter birth Birth more likely to require labor induction or surgical intervention is some edema normai in pregnancy While edema of feet is normai in pregnancy, whole body edema, including face, is a warning sign (of preeclampsia) Winters vitamins are neecieri in trigirer amounts in pregnancy? articulariy one to their roles in tire synthesis of red intend eeiis? Vitamin B 12 is important along with folate to assure an adequate number of red blood cells to deliver oxygen to the fetus. How many extra callories per day rioes a pregnant women need per clay in the second anti third trimesters? Extra energy need for pregnancy is only 300 calories/day, easily provided by 1 extra serving each from grains, vegetables, fruits 1 extra ounce of meat 1 extra serving of skim milk in addition to food pyramid servings recommended for all adults Wirieir nutrient need is tire hardest to meet during pregnancy Without ssrgrgtiesnesttatieu? iron [it what stage of pregnaney does preeeiampsia typieailly deeeiop? i think it’s the third trimester; the answer is not in the notes, i will look it up online. What are the three gastrointestinai probiems eommonly assoeiated with pregnaney? l. Nausea Caused by hormonal changes @ften triggered by food odors Degree varies widely Can be serious enough to require medical intervention 2. Constipation 3. Heartburn is unaitered eon/9s milk an appropriate food for a baby under one year aid? No, introducing cow’s milk to a baby should happen after the baby is 12 months of age. it’s too high in protein, calcium; and too low in iron and vitamin C. W hat are some appropriate aiternatives to eow’s mirth and breast midis to meet an infantgs nutrition needs in the first s months of life? infant formula is made to meet infant nutrition needs, 51, to resemble breast milk in nutrient content as much as possible. it is also iron fortified. Remember that 6"isoliid ‘i"o;>ods“‘9 when referring to infant feeding simpiy means “noon liegeid99 food? sneh as infant eereai and. baby food9 6éSo‘iid fooo‘i99 must be distinguished from 66tabie food?"a whieh means foods in the form eaten by oider ehiidren and adnitse Given the above elle‘finitiona at what age is it most appropriate to introduee soiid foods to infants? After 4—6 months. it’s best to wait until baby can sit with support and control its head movements. What hind: of baby eereai {stats9 riee9 wheat?) is reeommended as the most appropriate “first food” for an infant? eBest first food is infant cereal (rice type recommended), mixed with breast milk or formula (esp. helpful in meeting iron needs) iAfter about l month of adding cereal, can start pureed vegetables (best offered prior to fruit due to preference for fruit if given choice Why is it important to try one new food for a few days before adding another new food? ‘ Because it’s important to observe the infant (for a few days) to see if there is any adverse reactions to new food {it Between ages one and two years? what type of eow9s mitts roost appropriate for a ehiid? isinirn9 liow fat9 whoie?) Whole milk is best ehoiee, as child needs the fat at this early age. Can substitute yogurt, cheese if better accepted Be abie to roughly estimate the eaiorie needs of a child based on age. At one year, approx. lOOO calories At three years, approx l300 calories At l0 years, approx 2000 calories Know which foods are most liliein to cause aiiergic reactions Almost 75% of food; allergies caused by eggs, peanuts, «3; milk. (Anaphylactic shock most often caused by peanuts, tree nuts, a fish or shellfish.) Based on tiata coiiecteti on dietary intake of children over the last Salli years9 tines increased calorie intake appear to explain the increasecl rates of ohesity in children? lit“ nets What is the most iihely explanation? Culprit cause of childhood obesity: reduced physical activity What parenting techniques tenti to promote the hest ioncl acceptance anti development oi" the healthiest eating hahits? Parents need to set good examples, because actions speak louder than words Mealtime should he gleasant, not tense EANiSi-i the clean plate club The schooi lunch program suhsitiizeti hy the government is required to provide What traction of a chihigs A in the lunch oi‘i‘ereti? Must provide at least l/3 of daily nutrients needed by children being served, and stay within limits set by Dietary Guidelines for Americans What is the official diagnostic difference hetween hniiinia anti hinge eating disorder? Bulimia is characterized as binge eating (within a 2 hour period) then having a compensatory reaction of trying to voiol the food (via laxatives, vomiting, etc.) Binge eating is overeating Without a compensatory reaction. (Ex, Dr. Stevens not only being able to have one piece ofpounti cake. . , she eats the Whole pound.) How ranch protein is neecieei to support ariiiing muscle tissue? During active muscle-building phases of training, weightlifter might acid 1/11 ounce to 1 ounce {between ’7 a: 28 grains} of protein each day to existing muscle mass (Can that changes alone cause an increase i muscle tissue“? No, Without exercise it will not produce an increase in tissue Which energy nutrient is not used to inei anarchic tnuscle earls? Fat or fatty acids Which energy nutrient neetis to he ahnntiant in the tiiet in ureter to maximise muscle glycogen concentrations? Carbohydrates Energy nutrients nseti for niuscie activity are different depending on the intensity of the activity Which nutrient is the predominant inel for ion! to moderate intensity activit ? F at ~ when you get into the high intensity range you need carbs. You burn more fat during moderate intensity. "What types oi“ activities would he casitiereti high intensity? A speed event; running as fast as you can =- Also a weight iifting event. What is the waste prodnct that hniitis on from nnnerohie inetnhoiisrn? Lactic acid "How tong do giycogen stores nsnniiy inst when an nthiete is engaged in protongett ylworons netivity? NQT G®ENG "E0 BE GIN "Fifi TEST SHE SAtD — depends on intensity and the Size of the person What senses the phenomenon heron/n as “hitting the innit”? When glycogen stores are depleted What type of diet which has been shown hy research to he associated with the best performance in endnrance ethietes? A high carbohydrate diet What sports enemin? A phenernonon when an athlete begins their training season; there tends to be a decrease in RBC’S. it’s not caused by a nutritional deficiency, the body corrects itself without having to do anything special. What is the optimai enrhohytirate concentration for er sports drink for an endnrnnee nthiete? The repiacernent drink should contain at least 6=8% of carbohydrates either as glucose, glucose poiymers, or fructose. How ninth iiniti shonid n person drink for each ponnd of body weight inst tinting an exercise session? 2 cups for each pound What type oi’ tneei is recommended prior to nthietie event or competition {pregame intent)? Low fat, low fiber, moderate protein and high carbohydrate nernrrion n notno What is the fastest growing sge gronp in the United States? (more speeit‘ie than inst “the enerin Person’s who are 85+ years of age How tines aging ai't'ect vitnrnin i} nntrition? Aging increases the need for vitamin D, h/c the response to exposure is lower. is it possibie tor oider ednits {of any age) to gain rnnseie hnih and strength? Y es it is possible unless they have a disease What appears to he the optimai Bit/ii range t‘or peopie oyer 7th hosed on research? A healthy Bis/ti for people over 70 is 25—32; fit Ehiflhh/A’iihi ‘Whnt type oi“ food safety hazard ranks highest on the FDAas priority iist? Microbial food-borne illness is the that soinbie vitamin or minerni eontent of n food nt‘i‘eeted inneh hy the canning protess? No, fat=soiubie Vitamins are not destroyed (heat stable) & do not diffuse into the liquid Hews flees fine entriiinn centen’s of firemen feeds enmpnre in than; of fresh fenda eenneii 'i”’eeei.<sa defied feedsg er feeds wniein fliers/e nnaiergene exitmsinn? Nutrient cement of frozen foods simiiai‘ to that of fresh foods, 8; can be even higher due to flesh foods being picked before ripeness and spending 3, i0: offline in transport 6; in refrigerator . There are trade off’ s with regard to nutrient content with canned foods. Vacuum puff drying and freeze drying preserve nutrients much better than methods which use heat ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/21/2011 for the course PUBH 1517 taught by Professor Paula.goldberg during the Winter '11 term at Life Chiropractic College West.

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PUBH 1517 Basic Nutrition - FINAL EXAM REVIEW (with...

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