PUBH 1517 Basic Nutrition - FINAL EXAM REVIEW Guide 1

PUBH 1517 Basic Nutrition - FINAL EXAM REVIEW Guide 1 -...

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PUBH 1517 Final Exam Study Guide Pregnancy What is the placenta? Placenta is the organ that transfers nutrients and oxygen to the developing baby At 8 weeks after conception, what parts of the embryo’s body have already developed significantly complete CNS, beating heart, fully formed digestive system, fingers/toes, facial features What is the relationship between malnutrition and critical periods of fetal development in pregnancy Important for mother to be well-nourished at conception due to rapid & significant developmental changes that occur in the embryo early in pregnancy; placenta suffers too When must folate intake be adequate in order to ensure that a folate deficienty does not contribute to neural tube defencts? folate need INC to 600 ug/day; neural tube supposed to close in week 6 of development do not exceed 1 mg What is the significance of infant birth weight in regard to the future health status of an infant? birthweight is most potent single indicator of future health status, At what weight is an infant classified as “low birth weight” low = < 5.5lbs…nearly 40x more likely to die in 1 st year of life How much weight gain is recommended in pregnancy for a normal weight woman? Underweight* women: 28 to 40 lbs Normal weight* women: 25 to 35 lbs Overweight* women: 15 to 25 lbs Obese* women: 13 lbs minimum For Twins: 35 to 45 lbs Teenagers: 35 lbs minimum A sudden large weight gain in pregnancy is a warning sign for what pregnancy complication neural tube defect What are other complications? INC incidence of gestational diabetes, hypertension (preeclampsia), and infections after birth. Birth is more likely to require a labor induction or surgical intervention Is some edema normal in pregnancy? edema of feet is normal; whole body edema (including face) is a warning sign of preeclampsia Which vitamins are needed in higher amounts during pregnancy? vitamin B12 is important along with folate to assure adequate number of RBC’s iron is hardest to meet w/o supplemtation
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How many extra calories per day does a pregnancy woman need per day in 2 nd and 3 rd trimesters extra energy need for pregnancy is only 300 cal/day , easily provided by o 1 extra serving from grains, veggies, fruits o 1 extra oz of meat o 1 extra serving skim milk o What stage of pregnancy does preeclampsia typically develop? 3 rd What are the three GI problems commonly associated with pregnancy? nausea: hormonal, food odor, varies widely, can be serious constipation heartburn Breastfeeding Under what circumstanced would it NOT be appropriate for a mother to breastfeed HIV + mom has a communicable disease tuberculosis or hepatitis mom consumes alcohol mom takes drugs What nutrient level in breast milk is too low to meet an infants total need? vitamin D
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PUBH 1517 Basic Nutrition - FINAL EXAM REVIEW Guide 1 -...

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