PUBH 1517 Basic Nutrition - FINAL EXAM REVIEW Guide 3

PUBH 1517 Basic Nutrition - FINAL EXAM REVIEW Guide 3 -...

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Unformatted text preview: PUBH $3? Review for Final Major Minerals Know the primary functions of chloride, potassium, 82; magnesium Where does most of the sodium in our diets come from? (natural sodium content, salt added during cooking 86 at table, processed foods?) What typically causes a potassium deficiency? What does the P stand. for in ATP? How does the amount of phosphorus in the body compare with the amounts of other major minerals in the body? For which minerals do we tend to have intakes below the RDA? 85 for which minerals is it not usually difficult to meet the RDA? Which energy nutrient usually contains sulfur? Exace Minerals Which factors enhance the absorption of iron and which factors reduce the absorption of iron? What percentage of dietary iron is usually absorbed by a nonmpregnant adult who is not iron deficient? Which age a, gender group in the United States is least susceptible to iron deficiency? When an iron deficiency begins to develop, what lab value can detect the deficiency before anemia develops”? How are red blood cells different from the norm when a patient has iron» deficiency anemia”? Which food group usually has iron added to it in the United States? What are the symptoms of zinc deficiency? Which food groups provide the most reliable sources of dietary zinc? The synthesis of thyroxin is mainly dependent on which mineral? Why might cow’s milk contain iodine? What is goiter and how/is it related to iodine? What is eretinism and how is it related to iodine? Which foods are naturally rich sources of iodine? Which trace mineral has a function similar to vitamin E? What is the relationship between copper and hemoglobin? How does fluoride reduce tooth decay? What is the target level of fluoride concentration when fluoride is added to public water suppliee? Without fluoridated water, can our diets reliably supply the amount of fluoride needed to provide a protective effect for teeth? What ie the ehief known function of chromium? Cobalt is a part of which l3 vitamin? Pregnancy: What is the placenta? At 8 weeke after conception, what parts of the emhiyo’e body have already developed significantly? What is the relationship between malnutrition and critical periods of fetal development in pregnancy? When muet folate intake be adequate in. order to ensure that a folate deficiency does not contribute to neural tube defects? What is the Significance of infant birth weight in regard to the future health status of an infant? At What weight is an infant elaeeified as “low birth weight”? How much weight gain is recommended in pregnancy for a normal weight woman? A sudden large weight gain in pregnancy is a warning sign for what pregnancy complication? What are the other symptoms of the same complication? is some edema normal in pregnancy? Which Vitamins are needed. in higher amounts in pregnancy partially due to their roles in the synthesis of red blood cells? How many extra calories does a pregnant woman need per day in the second 85 third trimesters? Which nutrient need is the hardest to meet during pregnancy Without supplementation? At What stage of pregnancy does preeclampsia typically develop? What are the three gastrointestinal problems commonly assoeiated with pregnancy? Breastfeeding Under What circumstances would it NOT be appropriate for a mother to breastfeed? Which nutrient level in breast: milk: is too low to meet an infants total need? What is colostrum? What is the name of the chief protein in human breast milk? Which component of breast milk binds iron & prevents it from supporting the growth of harmful bacteria in the infant’s intestine? How does the composition of human breast milk compare to the composition of cow’s milk? infant Feeding ls unaltered cow’s milk an appropriate food for a baby under one year old? What are some appropriate alternatives to cow’s milk and breast milk to meet an infant’s nutrition needs in the first 6 months of life? Remember that “solid foods” when referring to infant feeding simply means “non-liquid” food, such as infant cereal and baby food. “Solid food” must be distinguished from “table food”, which means foods in the form eaten by older children and adults. Given the above definition, at What age is it most appropriate to introduce solid foods to infants? What kind of baby cereal (oats, rice, wheat?) is recommended as the most appropriate “first food” for ain infant? Why is it important to try one new food for a few days before adding another new food? Childhood Nutrition {age 1 year up to adolescence! Between ages one and two years, What typw of cow’s milk is most appropriate for a child? (skim, low fat, Whole?) Be able to roughly estimate the calorie needs of a child based on age, Know which foods are most likely to cause allergic reactions, Based on data eoilected on dietary intake of children over the last. 30 years, does increased calorie intake appear to explain the increased rates of obesity in children? if not, What is the most likely explanation? What parenting techniques tend to promote the best food acceptance and development of the healthiest eating habits? The school lunch program subsidized by the government is required to provide What fraction of a childh RDA in the lunch offered? Eating Eisorders What is the official diagnostic difference between bulimia and binge eating disorder? Sports Nutrition How much protein is needed to support adding muscle tissue? Can diet changes alone cause an increase in muscle tissue? Which energy nutrient is not used to fuel anaerobic muscle work? Which energy nutrient needs to be abundant in the diet in order to maximize muscle glycogen concentrations? Energy nutrients used for muscle activity are different depending on the intensity of the activity. Which nutrient is the predominant fuel for low to moderate intensity activity? What types of activities would be considered high. intensity? What is the waste product that builds up from anaerobic metabolism? How long do glycogen stores usually last when an athlete is engaged in prolonged vigorous activity? What causes the phenomenon known as “hitting the wall”? What type of diet which has been shown by research to be associated with the best performance in athletes? What is sports anemia? What is the optimal. carbohydrate concentration for a sports drink: for an endurance athlete? lwf‘iow much fluid should a person drink for each pound of body weight lost during an exercise session? What type of meal is recommended prior to athletic event or competition (pregame meal}? Mtrition fir» Agigg What is the fastest growing age group in the United States? {more specific than just “the elderly”) How does aging affect vitamin D nutrition? Is it possible for older adults (of any age) to gain muscle bulk and strength? What appears to be the optimal BMl range for people over 70, based on research? Food Safety: 65 Preservation What type of food safety hazard ranks highest on the FDA’s priority list? Is the fat soluble Vitamin or mineral content of a food affected much by the canning process? How does the nutrient content of frozen foods compare to that of fresh foods, canned foods, dried foods, or foods which have undergone extrusion? ...
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