PUBH 1517 Basic Nutrition - Glossary for Nutrition Chapters

PUBH 1517 Basic Nutrition - Glossary for Nutrition Chapters...

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acidosis above-normal acidity in the blood and body fluids. acids compounds that release hydrogen ions in a solution. acute PEM protein-energy malnutrition caused by recent severe food restriction; characterized in children by thinness for height (wasting). alkalosis above-normal alkalinity (base) in the blood and body fluids. amino acid pool the supply of amino acids derived from either food proteins or body proteins that collect in the cells and circulating blood and stand ready to be incorporated in proteins and other compounds or used for energy. amino acids building blocks of proteins. Each contains an amino group, an acid group, a hydrogen atom, and a distinctive side group, all attached to a central carbon atom. antibodies large proteins produced by the immune system in response to the invasion of the body by foreign molecules (usually proteins called antigens). They combine with and inactivate the foreign invaders, thus protecting the body. antigens substances that elicit the formation of antibodies or an inflammation reaction from the immune system. A bacterium, a virus, a toxin, and a protein in food that causes allergy are all examples. bases compounds that accept hydrogen ions in a solution. chronic PEM protein-energy malnutrition caused by long-term food deprivation; characterized in children by short height for age (stunting). collagen the protein from which connective tissues such as scars, tendons, ligaments, and the foundations of bones and teeth are made. complementary proteins two or more dietary proteins whose amino acid assortments complement each other in such a way that the essential amino acids missing from one are supplied by the other. conditionally essential amino acid an amino acid that is normally nonessential, but must be supplied by the diet in special circumstances when the need for it exceeds the body’s ability to produce it. deamination removal of the amino (NH 2 ) group from a compound such as an amino acid. denaturation the change in a protein’s shape and consequent loss of its function brought about by heat, agitation, acid, base, alcohol, heavy metals, or other agents. dipeptide two amino acids bonded together. dysentery an infection of the digestive tract that causes diarrhea. edema the swelling of body tissue caused by excessive amounts of fluid in the interstitial spaces; seen in protein deficiency (among other conditions). enzymes proteins that facilitate chemical reactions without being changed in the process; protein catalysts. essential amino acids amino acids that the body cannot synthesize in amounts sufficient to meet physiological needs. fluid balance maintenance of the proper types and amounts of fluid in each compartment of the body fluids. hemoglobin
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This note was uploaded on 11/21/2011 for the course PUBH 1517 taught by Professor Paula.goldberg during the Winter '11 term at Life Chiropractic College West.

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PUBH 1517 Basic Nutrition - Glossary for Nutrition Chapters...

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