MICR 1531 Norms Notes - Final

MICR 1531 Norms Notes - Final - Microbiology Final Notes-...

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Unformatted text preview: Microbiology Final Notes- Page 1 Hey 5th quarter, Norm here. In order to save you money, I left out the pictures. If you want them send an email to normsnotes@aol.com. This is dry material. If you fall asleep too many times reading this crap, and it is getting close to test time, make sure that you look at the study guides in the back. They (and old tests) will help you significantly. Good Luck,-Your Buddy Norm NormsNotes Bacteriology & Virology "Microbiology I" MICR2202 Lecture Final Dr. Shahla Abghari, Ph.D 1. DISEASE 1) Reportable Diseases- by law many diseases must be reported to authorities. 2) Notifiable Diseases- diseases reported on a vohmtary basis. NormsNotes Microbiology Final Notes- Page 2 Note: The CDC (center for disease control) and WHO (world health organization) keep track of infectious diseases at the levels of local district, state, nation, and international. II. KOCH'S POSTULATES Robert Koch, studying the transmission of anthrax in cows, proved the germ theory of disease by developing a standard for determining causative (etiologic) agents. Four steps or postulates are involved. The postulates direct an investigator to: 1) Find evidence of a particular microbe in every case of disease. 2) Isolate that microbe from infected subject (characterize it) and cultivate it artificially in laboratory. 3) Inoculate a susceptible healthy subject (a good animal model) with the laboratory isolate and observe resultant disease 4) Re-isolate the agent from this subject The investigator then must re-inoculate observing for the same evidence of infection to confmn the results. [insert picture] Figure 1: Is this the etiologic agent? Both the microbe in the initial and second isolation and the disease in the experimental animal must be identical for the postulates to be satisfied. III. ORIGIN OF PATHOGENS (not in the old notes) 1) Reservoir- a place where the pathogen ultimately originates - its habitat. The reservoir can be animal, human, soil, water and plant. 2) Source- the immediate origin of an infectious agent. Sometimes the reservoir and the source are the same, and sometimes they differ. For example, in hepatitis A, the reservoir (a human carrier) is usually different from the source of infection (contaminated food). 3) Carrier- an individual that inconspicuously shelters a pathogen and spreads it to others without any notice. There are many types of carrIers: NormsNotes Microbiology Final Notes- Page 3 a) Asymptomatic Carrier (apparently healthy) - the infected individual (canying live bacteria inside them) shows no symptoms. This happens, for example, with gonorrhea and genital warts. There are three types of asympotomatic carriers: i) Incubation Carrier - spreads the infectious agent during the incubation period. For example, AIDS patients can harbor and spread the virus for months and years before their first symptom appears....
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MICR 1531 Norms Notes - Final - Microbiology Final Notes-...

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