RADD 1611 Lecture Notes - Normal Radiography I Lecture...

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Basic Terminology Central Ray (CR) – the very center of the radiographic beam o Beam comes out in a cone shape o Will be demonstrated by a shadow created by the collimator light when positioning a patient o Will be directed at particular anatomical structures to obtain accurate placement o Example : For the lateral cervical view, we are required to see up to the sella tursica and down to C7 Part Position – the position of the body part being exposed o Example : on a cervical flexion view the head is in complete flexion (chin down to chest) The name implies the part position Patient Position – the postural attitude of the patient’s body during the exposure of the film o Example : recumbent (laying down), seated, standing o Most chiropractic films are weight bearing (standing or seated) o In the case of extreme obesity (or medical profession), recumbent positioning displaces adipose tissue o You can tell the difference with the use of Mitchell markers Tube – the portion of the machine where x-ray radiation is produced and directed towards the patient (where the beam starts) Tube Tilt – the angle of the x-ray machine tube o Allows the doctor to view certain angles that might be blocked at the “normal” angle Tube/Film Distance (aka Focal/Film Distance) – distance between the tube and the film o Mostly 40 inches (some at 72 inches) – doesn’t have to be exact measurements Bucky – the portion of the x-ray machine which houses the grid and the cassette will be placed during the exposure of a film o Behind/next to the patient where the x-ray beam is pointed Cassette – a light-tight box (casing) o Allows unexposed film to be in a lighted room unaffected Collimation – a mechanism (inside the tube) utilized to limit the exposure field o Required to be seen on the film in some states ( different laws in different states ) o If your taking a cervical view, you don’t need to see the lumbars (reduce the field the beam is being shot) Relationship Terminology Cephalad – towards the head or I-S Caudal – towards the feet or S-I Distal – towards the periphery of the body Proximal – towards the center of the body Lateral – towards the right or left side of the body Medial – towards the midline of the body Flexion – angle of body parts is decreased Extension – angle of body parts is increased Markers Single Letter Markers – the single letter marker indicates the patient’s appropriate side of the body part closest to the film (or bucky) during exposure Multiple Letter Markers – the marker will indicate the body part closest to the film during the exposure o Example : RAO (right anterior oblique – patient facing the film/bucky), RPO (right posterior oblique – patient facing the tube) Placement of Marker o Never obstruct any anatomical structure with a marker o Carefully place markers so that they are not collimated out of the exposed area of the film
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RADD 1611 Lecture Notes - Normal Radiography I Lecture...

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