OVERVIEW OF THORAX:
Thorax is btw the neck and abdomen.
The floor of the thoracic cavity (thoracic diaphragm) is deeply
invaginated inferiorly by viscera of the abdominal cavity.
The thorax includes the primary organs of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems.
The thoracic cavity is
divided into 3 major spaces: the Mediastinum that houses the thoracic viscera except for the lungs and, on
each side, the right and left pulmonary cavities housing the lungs.
Includes: thoracic cage & muscles that extend btw the ribs & skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscles, and fascia
covering its anteriolateral aspect.
Mammary glands lie within the subcutaneous tissue of the thoracic wall.
Protect vital organs from external forces
Resist negative internal pressures generated by the elastic recoil of the lungs and inspiratory
Provide attachment for and support the weight of the uppers limbs.
Provide origin of many of the muscles that move and maintain the position of the upper limbs
relative to the trunk, as well as provide the attachments for muscles of the abdomen, neck, back, and
Within the thorax:
Prim. Respiratory and cardiovascular
Heart, great vessels, lungs, and trachea
divided into 3 parts: 1. Mediastinum (heart and structures transporting air, blood and food;
and 2. the right and left pulmonary cavities, occupied by the lungs.
RIBS, COSTAL CARTILAGES, AND INTERCOSTALS SPACES:
Ribs are flat bones, hematopoietic
1. True (vertebrocostal) ribs: 1-7
2. False ribs: 8-10
3. Floating ribs: 11,12
Typical ribs: 3-9
Tubercle: at the junction of neck and body.
It’s a part that articulates with the TP of vertebra.
Body: thin, flat, curved most at costal angle.
The angle demarcates the lateral limit of
attachment of the deep back muscles to the ribs.
Atypical ribs: 1
, and 10-12
rib is the broadest, shortest, and most sharply curved of the 7 true ribs.
Has single facet on
its head for T1.
It also has 2 grooves superiorly for the subclavian vessels which are
separated by a scalene tubercle.
rib is thinner, less curved, a lot longer than rib 1.
Its head has 2 facets for T1 and T2.
Main atypical feature is a rough area on its upper surface, the tuberosity for serratus anterior,
from which part of that muscle originates.
are short and have no neck or tubercle.