ANAT 1625 The Urinary & Reproductive Systems Review

ANAT 1625 The Urinary & Reproductive Systems Review...

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Urinary System The urinary system (kidney, ureters, bladder, and urethra) form the major component of the excretory system. The excretory system acts to eliminate metabolic wastes (carbon dioxide, ammonia, excess ions), excess water, and toxins that have entered the blood. The respiratory system eliminates carbon dioxide; the skin eliminates some excess water, salts, and nitrogenous wastes; but the kidneys are the major excretory organs that maintain homeostasis of the blood. Specific functions of the kidney include: 1. remove nitrogenous wastes (urea) from the blood 2. remove toxins from the blood 3. maintain proper electrolyte balance in the blood 4. maintain proper water balance 5. maintain proper blood pH 6. regulate blood pressure - via renin-angiotensin system 7. stimulate erythropoiesis - release erythropoietin when blood is hypoxic Gross Anatomy The kidneys are bean shaped structures located retroperitoneally along the dorsal body wall between T12 and L3. -External Anatomy -dimensions = 12 X 6 X 3 cm -HILUS = the indented medial surface of each kidney. The hilus is the entry/exit point for: -RENAL ARTERY & RENAL VEIN -Renal Nerve -lymphatics -URETER - drains the urine to the urinary bladder -CAPSULE = outer coat of fibrous CT -Internally, the kidney is divided into 3 regions: 1. CORTEX = outer region adjacent to capsule 2. MEDULLA = middle region which is subdivided radially by the: -RENAL COLUMNS = inward projections of cortex -RENAL PYRAMIDS -conical shaped with base near cortex -the point forms the RENAL PAPILLA near pelvis -Each pyramid and the overlying cortex comprise a RENAL LOBE. There are about 8 lobes per kidney. 3. PELVIS = hollow space next to the hilus -the outer margin is subdivided to form the MAJOR CALYCES -Each Major Calyx is further subdivided to form MINOR CALYCES. The Renal Papillae project into each minor calyx. -The pelvis is continuous with the ureter Blood Supply -Path of the blood flowing into the kidneys and towards the Nephron: -RENAL ARTERIES branch from the descending aorta and divide before entering at the hilus. They divide further to form the -SEGMENTAL ARTERIES -LOBAR ARTERIES -INTERLOBAR ARTERIES which travel in the renal columns to the cortex. The interlobar arteries divide further to form -ARCUATE ARTERIES that arch over the medullary pyramids within the cortex. The arcuate arteries divide to form -INTERLOBULAR ARTERIES which travel in the cortex. They branch to form the -Blood vessels associated with the Nephron: -AFFERENT ARTERIOLES that feed the -GLOMERULUS a capillary bed associated with the Glomerular Capsule. It drains into the -EFFERENT ARTERIOLES which branch profusely to form the -PERITUBULAR CAPILLARIES surrounding the kidney tubules. -The path of the blood as it leaves the nephron and exits the kidneys:
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This note was uploaded on 11/22/2011 for the course ANAT 1625 taught by Professor Lescane during the Winter '11 term at Life Chiropractic College West.

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ANAT 1625 The Urinary & Reproductive Systems Review...

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