PHYS 1525 Respiratory System

PHYS 1525 Respiratory System - RESPIRATORY SYSTEM...

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RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
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RESPIRATORY SYSTEM PROCESS Movement of air in and out of the respiratory system: External Respiration = Breathing Exchange of gases between alveoli and blood: Internal respiration Transport of gases between the lungs and tissues by the blood: Internal Respiration Cellular respiration: use of oxygen by cells to generate ATP
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RESPIRATORY SYSTEM OUTLINE Anatomy of respiratory system (Martini23) Mechanics of respiration (Guyton 37) Diffusion of O 2 and CO 2 in the lungs (G39) The ability of blood to transport O 2 / CO 2 (G40) Characteristics of Hemoglobin Regulation of respiration (G41)
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RESPIRATORY SYSTEM ANATOMY Conducting portion – air is moved through without gas exchange = anatomical dead space From nasal passage to the terminal bronchioles Upper respiratory system: Filters, warms and humidifies incoming air Respiratory portion – gas exchange = alveoli (Pulmonary) When alveoli are damaged and can not exchange gases = physiological dead space
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RESPIRATORY SYSTEM ANATOMY Bronchioles have smooth muscle Provide the major source of resistance to air flow in the respiratory system. Bronchiolar constriction - caused by Parasympathetic stimulation acetylcholine, or immune cells histamine Bronchiolar dilation - caused by Sympathetic stimulation Norepinephrine, or Adrenal medulla stim. E + NE release (neurohormones) Alveolar sacs = region of gas exchange (150 million/lung) each is surrounded by capillaries Gas diffusion occurs across single layer of alveolar epithelial cells, fused basement membranes of alveoli + capillary, single layer of endothelial cells
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RESPIRATORY SYSTEM ANATOMY Other structures found in the alveoli: Septal cells – produce surfactant – reduced surface tension of alveolar fluid – keep alveoli expanded and prevent collapse Alveolar macrophages – phagocytize particles that reach the alveoli (PM < 2.5 Microns) Pleura – serous membrane made of two layers separated by pleural fluid Parietal pleura – covers inner surface of thoracic wall Visceral Pleura covers the outer surface of the lung Intrapleural pressure – pressure on the fluid between the two layers of pleura – plays a role in expansion and compression of the alveolar walls, air pressure in the lungs and air movement in and out of the lungs.
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RESPIRATORY SYSTEM DEFENSE MECHANISMS Goblet cells in the epithelium and mucous glands in the lamina propria produce sticky mucous – increased by exposure to contaminants in air. Cilia in the nasal cavity sweep the mucous down to the pharynx; Cilia in URT sweep mucous up to the pharynx = muco-ciliary escalator .
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RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY 1. Pulmonary ventilation = moving air in and out of lungs 2. Gas diffusion between alveolar air space and capillaries 3. Transport of gases in blood 4. Exchange of gases between blood and interstial fluids
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RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY Pulmonary ventilation = moving air in and out of
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PHYS 1525 Respiratory System - RESPIRATORY SYSTEM...

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