The matrix in (1.1) is in reduced-row-echelon form (or rref for short). This is characterizedby the following properties:•If a row has nonzero entries then the Frst nonzero entry is 1, which is called theleading 1in this row.•If a column contains a leading 1 then all other entries in that column are zero.•If a row contains a leading 1 then each row above it contains a leading 1 further to the leftof it.Example 2.The matrix0@0120300014000001Ais in rref.Example 3.The matrix0BB@120200013000140000011CCAis not in rref since there is a column that containstwo leading 1’s.Example 4.Why is0@1203000000121Anot in rref?The goal then is to use the following three row-operations in a systematic manner so that
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