ch8 lecture 1_1

ch8 lecture 1_1 - Bonding: General Concepts Two extremes of...

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Unformatted text preview: Bonding: General Concepts Two extremes of bonding 1.Ionic 2.covalent Bonding: Covalent or Ionic, all bonding is electrostatic interaction Covalent Bonding: electrons are shared, and attracted to both positively charged nuclei Molecules H 2 , CH 4 , H 2 O Ionic Bonding: Electrostatic interaction between positive cation and negative anion Ionic solids extended ionic arrays (no molecules) NaCl, Mg(NO 3 ) 2 Covalent bonding (a) The Interaction of Two Hydrogen Atoms (b) Energy Profile as a Function of the Distance Between the Nuclei of the Hydrogen Atoms video Easy to see what keeps an ionic lattice together electrostatic attraction between ions: here, Li+ and F- . Think about H 2 no net charge on the atoms. What keeps this covalent molecule together? Electrostatic attraction again. Shared electrons attracted to both nuclei. H-H Types of Bonds Covalent electrons shared: H 2 , N 2 Ionic full transfer of electron(s) NaCl, KF Polar Covalent shared electrons are not equally distributed, leading to negative and positive ends of molecule: CO, HF Dipole moment: The Effect of an Electric Field on Hydrogen Fluoride Molecules Polarity of bond is dependent from difference in Pauling Electronegativity Vaules Video: electronegativity trends An Electrostatic Potential Map of HF Why does F outcompete H for electrons? Why is HF polar? Same reason that explains fluorines small size: little screening increase accompanies increasing nuclear charge as you move across a period Question As a general pattern, electronegativity is inversely related to a) ionization energy. b) atomic size. c) the polarity of the atom. d) the number of neutrons in the nucleus. Polarity of molecule depends on the shape of the molecule: water Polarity of molecule depends on the shape of the molecule: ammonias shape is trigonal pyramid RASMOL Polarity of molecule depends on the shape of the molecule: carbon dioxide Does carbon dioxide have a dipole moment? 1.Yes 2.No Molecules can contain polar bonds and not have a (net) dipole themselves. Does the trigonal planar molecule SO 3 have a net dipole moment? 1. yes 2. no Does the tetrahedral CH 4 have a dipole moment? Molecules can have polar bonds but no dipole moment themselves Periodic trends: size of ions Anions are much larger than cations Why is Li+ so much smaller than Li? Why is F so much larger than F? larger than F?...
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ch8 lecture 1_1 - Bonding: General Concepts Two extremes of...

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