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ch8 lecture 1_1 - Bonding General Concepts Two extremes of...

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Bonding: General Concepts Two extremes of bonding 1.Ionic 2.covalent
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Bonding: Covalent or Ionic, all bonding is electrostatic interaction Covalent Bonding: electrons are shared, and attracted to both positively charged nuclei Molecules H 2 , CH 4 , H 2 O Ionic Bonding: Electrostatic interaction between positive cation and negative anion Ionic solids – extended ionic arrays (no molecules) NaCl, Mg(NO 3 ) 2
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Covalent bonding (a) The Interaction of Two Hydrogen Atoms (b) Energy Profile as a Function of the Distance Between the Nuclei of the Hydrogen Atoms video
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Easy to see what keeps an ionic lattice together – electrostatic attraction between ions: here, Li+ and F- . Think about H 2 – no net charge on the atoms. What keeps this covalent molecule together? Electrostatic attraction again. Shared electrons attracted to both nuclei. H-H
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Types of Bonds Covalent – electrons shared: H 2 , N 2 Ionic – full transfer of electron(s) NaCl, KF Polar Covalent – shared electrons are not equally distributed, leading to negative and positive ends of molecule: CO, HF
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Dipole moment: The Effect of an Electric Field on Hydrogen Fluoride Molecules
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Polarity of bond is dependent from difference in Pauling Electronegativity Vaules Video: electronegativity trends
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An Electrostatic Potential Map of HF
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Why does F outcompete H for electrons? Why is HF polar? Same reason that explains fluorine’s small size: little screening increase accompanies increasing nuclear charge as you move across a period
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Question As a general pattern, electronegativity is inversely related to a) ionization energy. b) atomic size. c) the polarity of the atom. d) the number of neutrons in the nucleus.
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Polarity of molecule depends on the shape of the molecule: water
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Polarity of molecule depends on the shape of the molecule: ammonia’s shape is trigonal pyramid RASMOL
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Polarity of molecule depends on the shape of the molecule: carbon dioxide Does carbon dioxide have a dipole moment? 1.Yes 2.No Molecules can contain polar bonds and not have a (net) dipole themselves.
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Does the trigonal planar molecule SO 3 have a net dipole moment?
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