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Unformatted text preview: Social and Personality Growth: Age 3–6 During early childhood, children gain some sense of being separate and independent from their parents. According to Erikson, the task of preschoolers is to develop autonomy , or self-direction (ages 1–3), as well as initiative , or enterprise (ages 3–6). According to Freud, children in the second year of life enter the anal stage of psychosexual development, when parents face many new challenges while toilet training their children. Fixations at this stage give rise to the characteristic personality traits of anal retention (excessive neatness, organization, and withholding) or anal expulsion (messiness and altruism), which fully emerge in adulthood. Family relationships are critical to the physical, mental, and social health of growing preschoolers. Many aspects of the family, such as parenting techniques, discipline, the number and the birth order...
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- Fall '09
- parental control