CHAPTER 11 Motivation: the internal state or condition that activates and gives direction to our thoughts, feelings, and actions (commercial of food may trigger the desire to eat) Emotion: Positive or negative feelings generally in reaction to stimuli that are accompanied by physiological arousal and related behavior. Primary motives: human motives for things that are necessary for survival, such as food, water, and warmth. (biological needs) Optimal level of arousal: The apparent human need for a comfortable level of stimulation, achieved by acting in ways that increase or decrease it. Reticular formation: Sets of neurons in the medulla and pons from which neurons project down the spinal cord to play a role in maintaining muscle tone and cardiac reflexes and upward throughout the cerebral cortex where the influence wakefulness, arousal level, and attention. Yerkes-Dodson law: law stating that effective performance is more likely if the level of arousal is suitable for the activity (football players have high arousal to get into the game with high
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